Wednesday, July 31, 2019
We are living in the Ã¢â¬Å"Era of GlobalizationÃ¢â¬ . Globalization is not a synonym of Global business, but it is more than that. Globalization poses variety of complex trends in the economic, social and cultural fabrics of all societies. We live in an intensely interdependent world in which all immense differences of culture and historical experience are compressed together in instant communication. The international transactions in services are defined as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred and consumed at the same time Traditionally services are viewed as domestic activities due to direct contact between producer and consumer and government monopoly in infrastructure sector. The emerging digitization concept has altered this perception. The ascent of information and communication technology has given rise to e-commerce, e-banking, e-learning, e-medicine and e-governance. So, it is argued that government finds it increasingly difficult to cope up with technology-driven ctivities. Because of that Nowadays Education has turned out to be a commodity of international trade. It is no more a public good on domestic scale, but a private good on global scale. Globalization brings education to the front lines. In the prevailing discourse, education is expected to be the major tool for incorporation into the Ã¢â¬Ëknowledge societyÃ¢â¬â¢ and the technological economy. In this paper author is going to see the impact of globalization on legal education in India. As we all know that Ã¢â¬ËLaw is the cement of society and an essential medium of change. Globalization and Legal Education in India We broadly understand globalization as an ongoing process which entails the free movement of capital, labour, goods and services across national borders. However, these parameters of economic globalization cannot be viewed in isolation from other aspects such as the free exchange of ideas and practices. From this perspective, the legal systems in various countries have a lot to learn from each other Ã¢â¬â both in terms of institutional design and the evolution of substantive lawswith increasing trade and investment across borders, there is an imperative need for all of us to understand the functioning of international institutions. At the same time, our national legal system must offer a balanced response to the rapidly changing socio-economic realities. We must also bear in mind that in this age of the internet and frequent international travel, judges, lawyers, academicians and even law students from different countries have a lot of opportunities to interact, collaborate and le arn from each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences. Access to foreign legal materials has become much easier on account of the development of information and communication technology. A few years ago, subscriptions to foreign law reports and law reviews were quite expensive and hence beyond the reach of most judges, practitioners and educational institutions. However, the growth of the internet and globalization has radically changed the picture. The decisions of most Constitutional Courts are uploaded on freely accessible websites Furthermore; electronic databases operated by prominent publishing houses have ensured that judges, practitioners and law students all over the world an readily browse through materials from several jurisdictions. Such easy access to international and comparative materials has also been the key factor behind the emergence of internationally competitive commercial law firms and Legal Process Outsourcing (LPO) operations in India. The present law has to deal with problems of diverse magnitudes and a student of law and an Advocate has to be trained in Professional skills to meet the challenges of globalization and universalisation of law. Legal education should also prepare lawyers to meet the new challenges of working in a globalized knowledge economy in which the nature and organization of law and legal practice are undergoing a paradigm shift. The Law Commission of India defines legal education as a science which imparts to students knowledge of certain principles and provisions of law to enable them to enter the legal profession. Legal Education is the process which equips the future lawyer, judge, administrator, counselor and legal scientists to know how legislative, executive, judicial organs of the government, are designed and how they operates. Legal Education is a technique, arena and platform for rational, orderly and non-violent settlement of disputes and handling of conflicts. Constitutional recognition to legal education and its progress in India The Constitution of India basically laid down the duty of imparting education on the states by putting the matter pertaining to education in List II of the Seventh Schedule. But it now forms part of List III, giving concurrent legislative powers to the Union and the States. Legal profession along with the medical and other professions also falls under List III (Entry 26). However, the Union is empowered to co-ordinate and determines standards in institutions for higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions besides having exclusive power, inter alia, pertaining to educational institutions of national importance, professional, vocational or technical training and promotion of special studies or research empowered by the Constitution to legislate in respect of legal profession, Parliament enacted the Advocates Act, 1961, which brought uniformity in the system of legal practitioners in the form of Advocates and provided for setting up of he Bar Council of India and State Bar Councils in the States. Changed Scenario of Legal Education due to globalization About fifty years ago the concept was that the law schools are meant to produce graduates who would mostly come to the bar, while a few may go into law teaching. But during this period the entire concept of legal education has changed. Today, legal education has to meet not only the requirements of the bar and the new needs of trade, commerce and industry but also the requirements of globalization. New subjects with international dimensions have come into legal education. In the changed scenario, the additional roles envisaged are that of policy planner, business advisor, negotiator among interest groups, expert in articulation and communication of ideas, mediator, lobbyist, law reformer, etc. These roles demand specialized knowledge and skills not ordinarily available in the existing legal education. The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) was, however, established by the Prime Minister of India in 2005 to recommend and undertake reforms in order to make India knowledge based economy and society. The National Knowledge Commission, while deliberating on issues related to knowledge concepts recognizes legal education as an important constituent of professional education. The working Group on legal education, inter alias, identified the problems and challenges relating to curriculum and recommended changes and reforms relating to curriculum . The report recommends the development of contemporary curriculum, which is integrated with other disciplines and also ensures regular feedback from stakeholders . The curricula and syllabi must be based in a multi-disciplinary body of social science and scientific knowledge . Curriculum development should include expanding the domain of optional courses, providing deeper understanding of professional ethics, modernizing clinic courses, mainstreaming legal aid programs and developing innovative pedagogic methods . With the advent of globalization, it has become increasingly important to include international and comparative law perspectives. According to C. Rajkumar, in the era of globalization, we should pay attention in four important factors to improve the standard of legal education. These are: Global curriculum, Global faculty, Global degrees and Global interactions. We have to think globally but act locally. Law is one of the most dynamic subjects of the world. Dynamism is the life blood of law . A law which is static cannot survive for long and will be rejected by people for whom the law will be implemented. So, to keep pace with the changing situation of the world we have also to change, by addition, subtraction, or cancellation, of the existing curriculum of the legal education in India. Otherwise, in future, it will lose its importance and will turn into a relic of the past.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
From this market survey, it can be concluded that nowadays consumers have become really conscious about the products they purchase. In the shampoo industry, during the old days the only thing the consumer used to keep in mind while purchasing was the brand name or else the person/celebrity who used to endorse it, but now things have changed. Consumers not only check the effectiveness but also the ingredients. Shampoo like Dove, Sunsilk, Garnier fructis, etc are very regular among the households and the main source is television advertisement, i. e. , the ads make the brands known among the mass and rest is on their usage. Swot analysis of Dove Strength Strong brand name/ image of the product Contains micro moisture serum which makes the hair soft and manageable. High quality product. The target market is educated professionals who belongs to premium and middle class Very good distribution network all over India. Weakness Competitors with strong promotional activities Customers are offered better alternatives due to the competitors. Poor promotion of free samples and sachets. Opportunities Population expanding at a rapid rate. Consumers are becoming more quality conscious. Costumer base is increasing with effective marketing. Baby shampoo is another area where they can make huge profits. Threats Political and economic factors. Partial government policies. High rate of competition. Local and global competition. Introduction to sunsilk Sunsilk is a hair care brand, primarily aimed at women, produced by the Unilever group, which is now considered the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading company and brand in hair conditioning and the second largest in shampoo. Sunsilk is UnileverÃ¢â¬â¢s leading hair care brand, and ranks as one of the Ã¢â¬Å"billion dollar brandsÃ¢â¬ . Sunsilk shampoos, conditioners and other hair care products are sold in 69 countries worldwide. Sunsilk is sold under a variety of different names in markets around the world including Elidor, Seda and Sedal. The brand is strongest in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East and is the number one hair care brand in Pakistan, India, Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Thailand. Esteem Silk is not very high on esteem, enjoys third position with a 60 percentile. The reason probably could be seen more as mass product and lesser as a premium product. Shampoos like garnier are seen more as a premium product. Differentiation Sunsilk is second on differentiation with an 80 percentile. There are a variety of reasons due to which sunsilk enjoys differentiation. It does different things like a gang of girls, offers expertise of hair care, experts like Jawed Habib and Samantha Kochhar. Relevance Sunsilk brand is highest on relevance. This could an account of various reasons. Sunsilk is popular brand, a unilever product, used since many decades. It is a quality product at affordable price. Moreover, it has wide variety of variants to cater to different consumer preferences. The is relevant among wide masses because of its quality, affordability and constant innovation. Evolution on sunsilk Sunsilk was launched in the UK in 1954, and by 1959 it was available in 18 different countres worldwide. At the time, Sunsilk had an advantage over other shampoos in the market as it only needed one application, and so meant washing less natural oils from the hair. Sunsilk cream shampoo for dry hair was launched in 1956. In 1958, a new transparent polythene tube for the liquid shampoo was introduced as an alternative large size pack to the bottle. Sunsilk was also available in such tubes. In 1960, Sunsilk Tonic shampoo was launched, containing skin healing ingredient Allantoin Ã¢â¬â designed to help keep the scalp free from infection. In 1961, Sunsilk Liquid shampoo was re-launched to Sunsilk Beauty, because Ã¢â¬ËLiquidÃ¢â¬â¢ in the name, originally used to distinguish the product from powdered shampoos had become meaningless as the majority of shampoos were now in liquid form. In 1962, Sunsilk was marketed as a range of shampoos for different hair types. Sunsilk significantly improved product formula and launched new variants in 1966: the first major shampoo to contain olive oil, which acted as conditioner to make hair soft and manageable; shampoo for dull hair, which restored hairÃ¢â¬â¢s natural shine; lemon shampoo for greasy hair with deep cleansing ingredients. Sunsilk hair spray was first launched in 1964 to enter an expanding hair-spray market, but in 1966 a new product formula was developed which gave hold, even in damp weather whilst still caring for hair. The hair spray contained a French perfume and could easily be removed by brushing or shampooing it out. In 1969, all Sunsilk shampoo was re-packaged in new PVC bottles, which were larger than traditional glass bottles for the same price. Sunsilk conditioner was launched in 1971 with three variants for dry, normal and greasy hair. In 1973, Sunsilk launched an aerosol dispensed setting lotion. An economy size shampoo bottle was introduced for Sunsilk in 1974. In 1975, Sunsilk became the biggest name in hair care with 1,000,000 packs being sold every week. In 1980, the whole Sunsilk range was re-launched, with improved formulations and packaging design to bring the brand into the 1980s. In 1985, Sunsilk styling mousse was launched and 2 years later a conditioning mousse followed. In 2001, Sunsilk moved into the hair colourant market for Asian-type dark hair, offering a range of seven permanent colours from natural black to copper with purple, red and gold tints. In 2003, Sunsilk launched a new range of shampoos and conditioners, which were developed to meet womenÃ¢â¬â¢s hair needs and reflect the way women think about their hair. The fake institute (a trademark by Sedal) Ã¢â¬Å"Elida Hair InstituteÃ¢â¬ developed the products in response to market research. Each product contained a unique formulation of ingredients, combining the best from natural and scientific worlds to help combat common hair problems. Milestones
Why is the mind/body problem within Philosophy of Mind and Consciousness studies indeed a problem? Well the mind body problem is a metaphysical issue about the relationship between what is mental and what is physical. (Ã¢â¬Å"mind-body problem,Ã¢â¬ 2009). I believe that this issue is and will continue to be a problem until there is enough evidence to fully prove one theory or disprove all but one of these theories from being true. At this point in time I feel that the monistic approach of physicalism best sums up the mind body relationship as it states that everything supervenes on, or is necessitated by, the physical(Stoljar, 2009). To put it in simpler terms relevant to the mind body problem the mind is a physical part of the body. I feel this way as it currently has the most supporting evidence. The other main view on the mind body problem is dualism and its theory of interactionism which holds that mind and body, though separate and distinct substances, causally interact. (Ã¢â¬Å"interactionism,Ã¢â¬ 2009). It isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the numerous theories that cause this mind body problem to be such a problem though itÃ¢â¬â¢s the evidence supporting these theories that makes this a highly debated topic as depending on your viewpoint the evidence could support multiple theories at once. This makes deciding what can be classed as evidence for and against different theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s very difficult. The term materialism, sometimes called central-state materialism, asserts that states of the mind are identical to states of the human brain(Ã¢â¬Å"materialism,Ã¢â¬ 2009). Scientific testing has shown that when people are asked to picture doing certain tasks mentally that specific areas of the brain are stimulated. They tested this on numerous people and found that in all of the subjects the mental stimulation caused certain areas of the brain to become active. Two years ago Adrian Owen published an article in Science in which he used fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) to examine the brain function of a young woman in an apparent vegetative state. During the study she was asked to either imagine herself playing tennis or to imagine herself walking through her house. These two distinct thoughts created distinct patterns of activation on the fMRI The terms Ã¢â¬ËphysicalismÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmaterialismÃ¢â¬â¢ are interchangeable. But the two terms have very different histories(Egnor, 2006). t is this such research that points in the direction of solving this mind body problem and emerging with one clear truth as to how the mind and body coexist. The term Ã¢â¬ËmaterialismÃ¢â¬â¢ is very old, but the word Ã¢â¬ËphysicalismÃ¢â¬â¢ was introduced into philosophy only in the 1930s by Otto Neurath (1931) and Rudolf Carnap (1932)(Stoljar, 2009). People argue that this new termanology has helped to more clearly define the concept as materalism refered to matter which is still a relativly indefinable substance whereas physicalism refers to the physical which is a very clearly defined substance. The idea of physicalism is that everything exists in the physical sense even feelings and thoughts have a physical root according to this theory. So when the previously mentioned study using a fMRI to scan the brain as people are thinking gives evidence of thoughts occurring as similar brain states among a large group of people including people in a Ã¢â¬Å"vegatative stateÃ¢â¬ gives hope that this proplem could be resolved quicker than previously expected. Dualism proposes this idea of interactionism in which the mind and body are separate yet they causally interact was first proposed by Rene Descartes who could not satisfactorily explain how the interaction takes place, apart from the speculation that it occurs in the pineal gland(Ã¢â¬Å"interactionism,Ã¢â¬ 2009). This of couse was later proven to be false as the true function of the pineal gland was discovered but the theory still remains that the mind and body are separate. One of the examples given for this theory is that if you where to touch a flame your body would tell your mind that it was in pain then your mind would tell your body to move your hand and therefore your mind and body are causally linked. But in real life if you put your hand in to a flame accidentally your body wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t wait for your mind to register what had happened an then tell you to remove your hand thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why humans have developed reflexes which happen at a spinal level the signal never reaches the brain or mind to be acted upon. This does serve to help both arguments though as a dualist would arue that this proves that the body and mind are separate but a monist would argue that the mind although physical encompasses a small part of the brain and isnt involved in every decision that you make for example breathing and your heart beat which proves that this example of dualism at work is flawed and suppports both arguments. This is why without hard evidence there will always be a mind body problem. The identity theory of mind holds that states and processes of the mind are identical to states and processes of the brain. Ã¢â¬Å"Identity Theory,Ã¢â¬ 2009). The montreal procedure developed by Dr. Wilder Penfield in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s in which the patient was given a local anaesthetic so they would remain conscious during the operation. Penfield then removed the skull cap to expose the brain tissue. As he probed the brain, the patient could describe his feelings. This technique also allowed Dr. Penfield to create maps of the sensory and motor sections of the brain, showing their connections to the various limbs and organs of the body. This technique is quoted extensivly to back up monistic theories that the mind and brain are one due to the ability of Dr. Penfield to accuratly map areas of the brain to specific regions such as speech, sensory and sight(Ã¢â¬Å"Dr. Wilder Penfield,Ã¢â¬ 2006). But a dualist would argue that although the states and process are identical and that different regions are responsible for different areas of the body it does not prove by any stretch of the term that the brain and mind are one. It mearly states that they are doing the same thing at the same time which could just as easily be an argument for parallelism. This I believe is one of the reasons why this mind body problem will always be a problem, as there are so many inter-linking theories that without difinitive proof of one theory being true there will always be a problem. As you can se from this paper there are many different theories and all have some form of evidence to back up their claim of being the correct theory. But at the same time the evidence given for one theory in most cases can also be used as evidence for another theory all depending on how you look at it. Which I one of the reasons that the mind body problem is a problem. As evidence is given to support one claim but if you shift your viewpoint that same piece of factual evidence then becomes evidence for a different theory. Now the evidence dosent change but the viewpoint does and this is what causes one of the problems. The other issue is the ammount of theories there are and that new theories are constantly being made. Take the case of physicalism for example physicalism is a relative new theory based on an old theory yet they are basically the same. So you can see that this stream new theories are being produced and the ability of multiple different theories to share evidence to back up their claim all depending on what view point you have on a topic is what I think makes the mind body problem such a problem. This problem will continue to be debated until someone can prove without a shadow of a doubt that their theory is true which will take a while.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Engaging the Bible in a Gendered World - Essay Example Yet, the book is interesting, even exalting at times. It can be considered an introductory textbook. It is also a highly regarded work. In fact, various scholars from the field of feminism and women studies use the book to introduce students to the methods, issues, and theoretical frameworks central to the discipline of feminist biblical interpretation. In highly available essays, this unique and precedent making book includes many interesting methods of presenting the information on gender bias in the Bible. These methods and order of presentation of information include the history, achievements, and revolutionary and even radical questions. These questions were thought provoking, as was the entire concept of the text. The questions encompassed both biblical and gender study. These questions included many subjects that force even a skeptical reader to take the concept of gender bias in the bible into careful consideration. These cutting edge questions included science and , violence and the Bible, female biblical God imagery, and sexuality. These were significant aspects to consider especially in the context of the text and its implication. Also significant to the book and its implication is the writer's back ground. ... She is the author of Just Wives Stories of Power and Survival in the Old Testament and Today and Ruth in the esteemed Interpretation commentary series. The contributors to this book are just as important as the message it provides. These contributors include men and women alike. These contributors are feminist, womanist, and pro-feminist biblical interpreters. They include a list of scholars in theology, history and feminist studies. Contributors include Phyllis Bird, Nacy Bowen, Juliana Claassens, Linda Day, Ada Maria Isasi Diaz, Frederick Dobbs-Allsopp, Freda Gardner, Nyasha Junior, Jacqueline Lapsley, Eunny Lee, Patrick Miller, Christie Nueger, Kathleen O'Connor, Dennis Olson, Anna May Say Pa, Carolyn Pressler, J. J. M. Roberts, Kathryn Roberts, Leong Seow, Elizabeth Tanner, and Renita Weems. References Day, Linda, Pressler, Carlyn. Engaging the Bible in a Gendered World: An Intro to Feminist Biblical Interpretation in Honor of Katharine Doob Sakenfeld Westminster / John Knox / 2006 writinghelp-central.com, Book Report Writing Template. 2005. As viewed on the world wide web at UJRL
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Talk about my quality and school life time - Personal Statement Example Throughout my educational background I have worked hard to prove my capability. Mathematics had always been a strong subject of mine. During my middle school in Taiwan, I have been honored with an award of Mathematics excellence in the 7th grade. Later on while completing my high school in America I was presented the Academic Awards Of excellence in Mathematics in the freshman year. My hard work has always proved to be fruitful and the encouragement in the form of these awards had always motivated me to thrive and flourish in the career I had always desired for. Moreover, I have been actively taking part in Mahjong competitions since I was sixteen. Mahjong is game of strategy, skill and calculation that involve a certain level of luck. As I have played many Mahjong games, I have gained experience in tackling complicated problems with ease and fortunately have always managed to rank between the first five positions. Mahjong has sharpened my skill to think logically and since my childhood it had always been my area of expertise. Being a practical person I believe in what I see and observe around me. This trait in my personality has led me to analyze the never-ending use of computers and my increasing awareness of their use in every occupation and profession have led me to opt for a career that involves the extensive application of computers. My fascination with computers have grown to be more profound and passionate since I had the fortunate chance of being exposed to this most modern equipment that science has put into the hands of the manki nd. Mathematics and computer science had always been interlinked as I came to realize that different concepts of mathematics such as vectors, logarithms and algebra are extensively used in computing. With the fine blend of computing and mathematics, I believe I can discover the unfamiliar for the betterment of the mankind. As Gail Devers said Ã¢â¬Å"Keep your dreams alive. Understand to achieve anything
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Does God exist - Essay Example Fundamentally, Anselm seeks to provide a priori proof, which is to negate the view presented of the fool in the Bible who says there is no God in Psalm 14:1 (Princeton University para 2). Therefore, he works from the angle of trying to present the arguments and proofs that an ideal or wise person should have. This implies that in Anselms views, a wise and a good person will be one who can go into himself, evaluate things and see and accept that God exists and have a feeling of his attributes and features which are not so obvious or clear to the average mortal. In Anselms earlier work, Monologion, he states three arguments to prove the existence of God. He first thinks that there is something above all goodness and that is a superior good. He believes that things are good in different way and they all go through a supreme good thing. That thing is good in itself and is the source of the good things. Therefore, since other thing cannot be greater than the good thing through itself, that thing must be supremely good. Anselm therefore concludes that the supremely good thing is also supremely great. There is, therefore, one thing that is supremely good and supremely great. In other words, supreme among all existing things. The second argument states a similar idea that all existence must come from one ultimate cause. If there are several causes then they either must exist independently or support each other. However, if those causes exist by supporting each other mutually, they cannot exist by causing what they supported. Therefore, if they exist independently, it means that they share a common power and become an ultimate cause. Finally, Anselm argues that there must exist one thing that every existing things exists through. To explain this, he illustrates his idea as follows; things must exist through something. And something might be one or more than one. If there is more than one thing, either they
Friday, July 26, 2019
Comparison of Two In-Home Child Care Programs - Essay Example Generalized reading and alphabet reinforcement was grounded in the small volume of teaching methods used here. Most business was word-of-mouth referrals, though it was properly licensed. The second in-home program was operated by Veronica Peters also in Corona, California. (ADD PHONE AND ADDRESS HERE). This service, Marona DayCare, was instrumentally larger than BeckÃ¢â¬â¢s in-home program, offering services for up to ten children with specialized assistance. The provider maintained a BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree in childhood education, similarly the same as one of her most reputable assistants. Parents paid considerably more for this service than BeckÃ¢â¬â¢s program since it reinforced fundamentals of early childhood learning and offered extended service hours. The majority of clients hailed from management or executive level positions, thus expecting higher levels of service and competency. Only observational research occurred at both in-home services and there was no direct interv ention during regular operating hours. Program Development in Both Services BeckÃ¢â¬â¢s program, despite its limitations, did maintain generalized knowledge regarding childhood development. However, the majority of this learning was founded on what would likely be considered early university lessons associated primarily with social learning theory. Beck identified her efforts to impose social learning theory as a means to gain positive behavioral control and also facilitate learning effectively. Social learning theory suggests that learning occurs as a result of role modeling in which children learn based on whether observed behavior of a reference individual is rewarded or punished (Neubert et al., 2009). Even though Cassandra Beck did not maintain the credentials of a qualified instructor as part of her daycare program, the interview results identified that it was a goal of the program to ensure that well-adjusted peers in the group were highlighted publicly and identified for p ersonalized rewards based on affirmation of positive attitudes and social abilities. Beck was rather proud of this structure and felt it had significant results on reducing egocentric behavior, commonly found in children of the late preoperational stage of development as suggested by Jean Piaget (Huitt & Hummel, 2003). Otherwise, this rather unstructured program consisted of circle time activities commonly found in kindergarten and preschool classrooms to facilitate better social learning with the children. Reading and basic comprehension of alphabet characters was facilitated by Beck in order to promote more group-oriented involvement. Otherwise, her role was much like that of a supervisor similar to that of a caring grandparent. Because of the credentials available with Veronica Peters at Marona DayCare, teaching was a regular part of the system and was directed for pre-school-aged children as well as students in elementary age. Two of these students were recipients of in-home lea rning provided by qualified parents and did not attend regular elementary school classrooms. Thus, there was a diverse mix of students at Marona DayCare. Peters believed in the vitality of visual learning, using graphs, visual images and reinforcement techniques for self-esteem development. This concept is supported by Robson (2006) who identifies that having the opportunity to display their unique work
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Terrorism - Term Paper Example Its history has been long and significant. This paper shall now seek to study and trace the history of terrorism in America. First, a general overview of the significant events in American terrorism shall be discussed. Secondly, a more specific discussion of relevant terrorism attacks in America shall be carried out. Lastly, this paper shall be summarized and concluded with specific points of discussion for future studies. This paper is being carried out in order to establish a clear picture of terrorism in America. It is being conducted as a means of understanding the patterns of attacks as well as the impact of these events in the life of the American people. Body Overview Terrorism in the United States is said to be caused by the various issues and conflicts which exist within and outside its borders. The country is a unique country because of its ability to contain the masses in a state of relative peace and harmony (Kelly, 2012). On further evaluation, terrorism in America is bo rne out of an extreme distrust of the American democratic ideals and of the illusion that people from varied backgrounds can all live loyally under the US political system (Kelly, 2012). In effect, despite significant variations in the expressions of terrorism, terrorism in the US can sometimes be explained as a violent claim on American values. The distrust is based on various expressions from different groups and in different time periods. The earliest manifestation of terrorism was seen in the early republic time period. The Boston Tea Party is an incident which is not considered terrorism in the technical sense (Kelly, 2012). The incident was a staged rebellion launched by colonists as a means of pressuring Britain into shifting its policies on the US (Kelly, 2012). Although this incident is not significantly violent, it can be placed in the category of terrorism as it was an act which sought to secure the goals and styles of national liberation groups. After the Civil War, terr orism came in the form of white supremacy movements and activities. The first form of terrorism seen in the United States was based on the ideals and activities of white supremacists (Kelly, 2012). These supremacists were Protestant Christians who believed that they were superior to other races and ethnicities and that general society must also exhibit such superiority. Before the Civil War, American society displayed such supremacy, especially as slavery was a legal practice (Kelly, 2012). Only after the Civil War ended was slavery made illegal, and white supremacy was soon to emerge. The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was the most infamous white supremacist group formed. This group used various means of terrorism and harmful activities against African-Americans and other sympathetic whites (Kelly, 2012). This group was later outlawed by Congress and the group branded as terrorists. Various incarnations of the group have become apparent over the years and various similar violent and terrorist acts have been perpetuated by these incarnations. The Ku Klux Klan still exists, but in a less violent fashion, however it has since grown in membership and continues to support its white supremacist ideals, not just against African-Americans, but against other minorities as well, including Asians, Arabs, and Jews. The Bolshevik revolution which later led to the establishment of the Soviet Union had a significant impact on revolutionaries all over the world, including America (Kelly, 2012). The
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Columbus - First Voyage - Essay Example Apart from his love for adventure and hope of conquest, Columbus feared that Portugal may discover the route to India and Cathay first, and, therefore, the First Voyage was necessary. Columbus was determined to get human cargo and material goods to his country and for himself thus he had an interest in slavery.3 Columbus was sailing both for adventure and getting a share of the big profits, which were to be made once, they reached the Indies. The purpose of the First Voyage of Columbus was finding a shorter route to Asia but instead of finding Asia, he landed in the Ã¢â¬Å"New WorldÃ¢â¬ . Since the trade between Asia and Europe was quite lucrative as it was full of spices. Columbus wanted to control the trade between Europe and Asia to make huge riches and fame. Muslims and Italians dominated most of the trade with Asians, and since Spain had not established any trade ties, Columbus was interested and determined to do it. The Spain rulers are simply funded Columbus hoping to enter into the spice trade through Columbus. His three missions were achieving glory, finding Gold, and spreading Christianity Gospel to the people of Asia.4 Columbus was not exploring the world when he landed in America but trying to find a shorter route to Asia for trading purposes. He rose to fame because he accidentally found the new world when he was trying to enrich himself by finding a shorter route to the spice land. Christopher Columbus came to be recognized as the discovery of America but according to historians, others had landed there first.
Symbolism in Mr Rochesters Descriptions of Jane Eyre - Essay Example At their first meeting (in Chapter 12 of the novel), Mr Rochester and his horse have taken a fall, and Jane Eyre is the only human being at hand to offer help. When he comes to know that she stays at Thornfield, he is puzzled because he cannot make her out. He can see that she is not a mere servant; when she tells him that she is the governess, he expresses amazement at having 'forgotten' that possibility. However, it is only when they next meet that she learns that he is the master of the house. At this time, in Chapter 13, he reveals what he thought of his first meeting with her: . . . you have rather the look of another world. I marvelled where you had got that sort of face. When you came on me in Hay Lane last night, I thought unaccountably of fairy tales, and had half a mind to demand whether you had bewitched my horse: I am not sure yet. In the course of the conversation he admits that he would not have managed to guess her age, for her"features and countenance are so much at variance." He demands to see her schoolgirl drawings and judges that they have been born of "elfin thoughts." . . . In the next chapter, at his next meeting with her, Mr Rochester reiterates that there is something "singular" about Miss Eyre: . . . you have the air of a little nonnette; quaint, quiet, grave, and simple, as you sit with your hands before you, and your eyes generally bent on the carpet (except, by-the-bye, when they are directed piercingly to my face; as just now, for instance); and when one asks you a question, or makes a remark to which you are obliged to reply, you rap out a round rejoinder, which, if not blunt, is at least brusque. This seems to be the only description of Jane by Mr Rochester that accords with the one that occurs at the end of Chapter 26. It appears to imply that he sees her grave and pure simplicity, and that the elfin and fairy imagery he scatters so readily in his descriptions of her reflect his own thoughts and fears rather than his conception of her true nature. In Chapter 15, Jane, perhaps somewhat roughly, saves her sleeping master from a fire. The words that he then addresses to her are, to put it mildly, unusual: "In the name of all the elves in Christendom, is that Jane Eyre" he demanded. "What have you done with me, witch, sorceress Who is in the room besides you Have you plotted to drown me" It is, surely, only Mr Rochester's conception of Christendom that can accommodate elves, witches and sorcery. Anyway, Jane is not in the least put out by this response and answers her master "in Heaven's name" without reference to any such profane or pagan imagery as used by her master. Mr Rochester, in Chapter 19, disguises himself as a gipsy woman who had come to tell the fortunes of the single women of quality then present at Thornhill. The other ladies are either amused or disappointed with what they hear, but the fortuneteller seems to have come especially to read Jane's fortune. When face to face with Jane the ' woman' sheds her gipsy tongue and declaims in high poetic language: The flame flickers in the eye; the eye shines like dew; it looks soft and full of feeling; it smiles at my jargon: it is susceptible; impression follows impression through its clear sphere; where it ceases to
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Risk management in advanced nurse practice - Essay Example The management of risk in health institutions is made depending on the code of operation of a specific practice. However, many state governments provide minimum requirements that each patient and practitioner must adhere to. In most cases the patient is given the freedom to agree or disagree with a certain mode of operation. For instance, before any critical operation, a patient should consent to it before it is carried out. If they are not in a position to do it, then the immediate family is given this mandate. However, there are exceptions if there is an emergency situation and there is no member of the immediate family to consult. According to OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly (2009) when a medical practice fails to consider available options, a patient is entitled to compensation in any case of harm. Additionally, medical practitioners are not allowed to act under their own jurisdiction. This means that before any crucial medical step, the management of a medical practice should also be included i n the decision making. ... If the uncertainty was avoidable then the medic in charge should be doubtful. Nevertheless, this does not mean that the medic should be prosecuted for the mistake. Neglect on the part in the part of the nurse should lead to prosecution. However, in many cases on uncertainties the organization takes responsibility of the incident rather than letting a medic be solely judged for it. According to Jasper (2008) in case of any patient incident, a medical practitioner is advised to prepare a full report on the occurrences during the incident. To maintain its credibility, the author further argues that witnesses should be included in all medical reports. Liabilities caused can be fatal to the career of an advanced practice nurse. If it reaches to a point where a medic I challenged to a law suit, the consequences could also portray a negative picture on the medical institution. It is for this reason that medical institutions have in place a proper risk management team. Risk management in med ical institutions is the best way to shield a practitioner from liabilities (Cornelison, 2008). Before enrolling into an institution, medical practitioners should review an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mode of protecting its employees from liabilities. The relationship between an institution and an employee should be based on performance rather than operating conditions. Practitioners should be given the freedom to operate without being intimidated by the rules and regulations formulated by the company. Providing legal counsel to an advanced practice nurse should be based on how well they are protected from uncertainties. Working unions provide another option of cushioning from liabilities. Unions over the years have been referred as the
Monday, July 22, 2019
Knitted fabrics Essay Weft-knitting fabric is made from continuous lengths of yarn, which is fed across the width of the fabric by a series of needles. Weft knits can be unravelled and if a stitch is dropped it will run down the length of the fabric, so weft-knitting fabric cannot be cut like woven fabric. This kind of knitting produces soft, comfortable that has variable stretch, depending on the structure. Hand made weft knitting can be make one off designer products, such as jumpers or cushions industrial computer-controlled knitting machines produced around 90 per cent of jersey, rib and jacquard fabrics. Warp-knitting fabrics are made on straight or circular CAD/CAM knitting machines. Each loop of the fabric is fed by its own separate yarn, which is fed into the knitting zone parallel to the fabric selvedge. These loops interlock vertically, along the length of the fabric. Warp knits have some elasticity, do not ladder and cant be unravelled. Although they can be cut like woven fabrics, warp knits have a limited application for clothing being mainly used for swimwear leisure and underwear linings laces ribbons and trimmings they are also used for net curtains furnishing and bed linen. Warp knits are mainly used in industrial end- uses including geotextiles. This is the most used weave construction, which can provide endless design variation though the use of plain, thick, and thin, fancy and coloured yarns plain weave is strong firm, and hardwearing and is used for many types of fabrics and end-uses, i. e. calico, gingham, muslin. calico is plain weave low-cost cotton fabric, made in different weights and widths, suitable for experimental textiles work. A fashion designer will often use calico to make a prototype garment to help in the development of the flat pattern for a new design. Interior designers sometimes used calico foe making low-budget furnishing. Voile is a lightweight plain weave sheer fabric made from cotton, silk, rayon, nylon or worsted. It used for blouses, dresses, childrens wear, and curtains. Ripstop nylon is a high performance plain weave fabric in witch some of the warp and weft are doubled up at intervals in a warp and weft. Twill weave products fabric with diagonal lines witch generally run bottom left to top right on the fabric face. Weaving twills in different directions produces weave variations, such as herringbone or chevron. Twill weave drapes well and is one of the most used weave constructions, making fabrics such as gabardine or denim. Twill is used for a wide range of products such as jackets, suit, trousers and curtains. viyella is a 2/2 twill fabric woven from wool/cotton blend fibres in the warp and weft. Viyella fabrics are 55%wool 45%cotton and can have plain, checked or striped they are used for products such as shirts dresses and childrens wear.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Eating Behaviour and Perceptions of Body Image in School Eating behavior and perception of body image in school children Background Body dissatisfaction, which is defined as the discrepancy between perceived and ideal body image, can start during childhood (Smolak 2004) and can lead to eating and weight problems in adolescence (Stice 2002; McKnight 2003). Specifically, Stice 2002 reported that when an adolescent presents with body dissatisfaction the probability of engaging to dieting and eating habits that are precursors of eating disorders was increased. Besides that body dissatisfaction was linked to bulimia (Stice 2002). Moreover, McKnight 2003 suggested that school children who presented with thinner preoccupation were in greater risk of developing an eating disorder (McKnight 2003). In addition, body dissatisfaction has been associated with obesity, since obesity is an eating disorder risk factor (Fairburn, Welch et al. 1997; Mustillo, Worthman et al. 2003) and body image is a moderator of the risk of developing eating disorders (Dounchis, Hayden et al. 2001). Except from body dissatisfaction, eating proble ms in early childhood can lead to eating disorders in adolescence and early adulthood (Kotler, Cohen et al. 2001). A number of studies have focused on the relationship between eating styles that precede the development of eating disorders, and the perception of body image in various age groups like school children, adolescents and university students and have reported that individuals with high EAT and ChEAT scores were more likely to choose a thinner ideal body image and consequently had body dissatisfaction (Edlund, Halvarsson et al. 1996; Nishizawa, Kida et al. 2003; GonÃ §alves, Silva et al. 2012; del Mar Bibiloni, Pich et al. 2013; Kutlu and Civi 2013). In more detail, Kutlu and Civi (2013) investigated the association between symptoms of eating disorders and body perception by using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40) in university students and found that individuals who perceived themselves obese reported higher scores in the EAT-40 and thus demonstrated a relation between eating disorders and body image perception. Similar results were presented in a study that investigated the association between self-physique and symptoms of anorexia nevrosa in high school individuals in Japan and showed that students with an eating disorder often chose the thinnest ideal body image when compared to the students who did not have an eating disorder (Nishizawa, Kida et al. 2003). Additionally, Edlund et al. 1996 investigated the relation between the ChEAT, DEBQ questionnaires and body image in school girls and observed that girls with high ChEAT scores were more likely to diet and engage to restrained eating and these girls had a higher discrepancy between ideal and perceived body image. Other studies have focused on eating behaviors like restrained and emotional eating and the relation with perception of body image (Kapka-Skrzypczak 2012; Wiedemann and Saules 2013; Ohara, Kato et al. 2014). Ohara et al. 2014 investigated the association between eating behavior, by using the DEBQ questionnaire, and discrepancy of body image in Japanese university students and suggested that restrained eating was negatively associated with body dissatisfaction in both males and females. In addition, university female students with emotional eating had higher levels of discrepancy of body image. This pattern was not observed in males (Ohara, Kato et al. 2014). Wiedemann and Saules (2013) suggested that the positive association between emotional eating and weight problem perception, another term for body image perception, could be explained by the fact that individuals that perceive themselves as overweight engage to emotional eating because they experience strong emotions like anger, d epression or anxiety more often than individuals who are satisfied with their body image. Kapka-Skrzypczak (2012) studied the relationship between dietary habits in adolescents and young adults and reported that students that werenÃ¢â¬â¢t on a diet were more satisfied with their body image as compared to students that tried to lose weight. Another important fact that arises from the existing literature is that the majority of studies are cross-sectional and examine the association between eating disorders symptoms or eating behavior and body dissatisfaction in a specific point in time. This results in a lack of longitudinal data studying the exact pathway that connects eating behavior and the discrepancy between perceived and ideal body image. Moreover, most of the studies that were found during the literature search included adolescents and university students and only two studies investigated this relationship in school children (Edlund, Halvarsson et al. 1996; GonÃ §alves, Silva et al. 2012). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the association between eating behavior of school children (9 year old), reported by mothers, and the discrepancy of body image. For this purpose data from the Generation R study will be used. Additionally, eating behavior will be assessed by the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Beh aviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and the perception of body image by the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Body Image Scale (CBIS). In conclusion, future studies should focus on younger ages, between 4-9 years old, because currently it is not known whether the association that is demonstrated by the aforementioned studies for adolescents and university students is present at this age group too. Furthermore, longitudinal studies investigating whether eating behavior of preschool children is a predictor of the perception of body image are needed and besides the individual and parental factors, sociocultural factors should be taken into consideration. Generation R Generation R is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life to young adulthood (Jaddoe, van Duijn et al. 2012). This study aims to investigate the causes (environmental and genetic) and the pathway that contribute to a normal or abnormal growth and consequently the state of health throughout fetal life, childhood and adulthood. In Generation R there are certain areas of research interest: maternal health, growth and physical development, behavioral and cognitive development, respiratory health and allergies, diseases in childhood, and health and healthcare for children and their parents. Generation R invited all pregnant women living in Rotterdam and were expected to deliver between April 2002 and January 2006. Furthermore, follow-up studies included children born by mothers that participated in the study. Participants had to sign a written informed consent in order to be able to participate in the study. Physical examinations and questionnaires were included in the a ssessments, where the majority (86%) of the questionnaires were filled out by parents. Generation R has been approved by the Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam. More information and details of Generation R can be found elsewhere (Jaddoe, van Duijn et al. 2012). ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) The CEBQ was developed in order to assess the eating behavior of children and study which eating styles lead to obesity and overweight (Wardle, Guthrie et al. 2001). ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s eating behavior is reported by parents and consists of 8 eating behavior items: food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, desire to drink, satiety responsiveness, emotional undereating and fussiness. In order to measure these items a 5-point Likert scale is used and ranges from 1 to 5, where 1 denoted Ã¢â¬Å"neverÃ¢â¬ and 5 Ã¢â¬Å"alwaysÃ¢â¬ (Wardle, Guthrie et al. 2001). ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Body Image Scale (CBIS) The CBIS is an instrument that is used to assess the perception of body size in children (Truby and Paxton 2002). CBIS consists of 7 figures which have different versions for males and females. These 7 figures range from the thinnest body shape to the fattest (3rd to 97th NCHS percentiles) (Truby and Paxton 2002). Usually, children have to choose between these 7 figures the one that represents the perceived and the one that denotes the ideal body image. Covariates Child BMI, gender, ethnicity, maternal BMI and education will be included in the regression analysis as potential confounding variables (GonÃ §alves, Silva et al. 2012; Baillie and Copeland 2013; Bergmeier, Skouteris et al. 2014; Sukariyah and Sidani 2014). It has been demonstrated that female high school students had higher scores on emotional eating and binge eating than males (Sukariyah and Sidani 2014). Additionally, Baile and Copeland (2013) observed that women had higher score on the Body Shape Questionnaire. An different pattern was reported in Goncalves et al. (2012), where boys who were not satisfied with their body image had higher score in the ChEAT questionnaire, a pattern that was not seen in girls who participated in the same study. Moreover, another study in Korean adolescents found that males had higher percentage of body image distortion and thus were in greater risk of developing an eating disorder than females (Hyun, Jung et al. 2014). BMI has been associated with body image dissatisfaction, since individuals with a higher BMI are more likely to be dissatisfied with their body image and engage to restrained eating (Jones and Crawford 2005; OHaver, Melnyk et al. 2009; GonÃ §alves, Silva et al. 2012). Furthermore, differences in the magnitude of body image dissatisfaction concerning ethnicity have been suggested by some studies (Gluck and Geliebter 2002; Baillie and Copeland 2013). Glunk and Geliebter (2002) reported that Caucasians and Asians had a higher discrepancy of body image than African Americans and Caucasians scored higher on the eating disorder questionnaire than Asians and African Americans. Baillie and Copeland (2013) observed that Caucasians had a greater body dissatisfaction with their body image than Chinese but no differences were found concerning the scores on the eating disorder questionnaire (EAT-26). Lastly, maternal BMI and education have been associated with food fussiness in children (Bergmeier, Skouteris et al. 2014). Besides that, Goncalves et al. (2012) found that higher maternal BMI was associated with higher scores on the ChEAT questionnaire. Research question(s) Is there an association between eating behavior and the discrepancy between perceived and ideal body image? In case an association is present, which items from the CEBQ questionnaire are related with the discrepancy between perceived and ideal body image? Hypothesis This study will not be based on a specific hypothesis. Instead an exploration of the association between eating behavior and discrepancy of body image will be conducted in 9 year old children from the Generation R study. Methods Subjects In this study data were collected from both mothers and their children. Firstly, mothers provided information on their childÃ¢â¬â¢s eating behavior by filling out the CEBQ questionnaire, when their children were at the age of 9. Secondly, children at the age of 9 filled out the CBIS for the assessment of the perception of body image. In total data from approximately 4000 children are available at this point. Statistical Analysis CBIS provides ordinal data but usually it is treated as interval data (Collins 1991). From the CBIS questionnaire the variable discrepancy of body image will be created. Discrepancy of body image is defined as the difference of perceived-ideal body image. Plots to check whether the variables of interest are normally distributed will be done. Descriptive statistics will be performed for eating behavior items and body image (ideal, perceived and discrepancy of perceived-ideal) (mean scores and standard deviations). For this purpose statistical tests, parametric (ANOVA, Ãâ¡2) and non-parametric tests for not normally distributed data will be done. Check correlation between confounding variables, eating behavior and body perception. Multiple linear regression will be performed where eating behavior (in the form of CEBQ scores) will be the outcome variable and discrepancy of body perception will be the independent/explanatory variable. Sensitivity analysis will be performed for the participants that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any missing values, in order to check whether individuals with missing data are different from individuals without missing data. Multiple imputation techniques will be used in order to check for missing data and avoid bias. Statistics SPSS 21 Period of thesis/internship 1 April 2015 Ã¢â¬â 31 August 2015 Investigation scheme: 1-24/04: Conducting literature search and writing research proposal 27/04-01/05: First acquaintance with dataset 04-08/05: Preparation of data analysis 11/05-05/06: Statistical Analysis and writing part of the report 08-12/06: Interpretation of results for the data analysis 15/06-22/07: Writing report 23/07-09/08 Holidays 10-17/08: Correcting and improving manuscript 18-21/08: Outline and submit report 24-31/08: Preparation of presentation and presentation References Baillie, L. E. and A. L. Copeland (2013). Disordered eating and body image in Chinese and Caucasian students in the United States. Eating Behaviors 14(3): 314-319. Bergmeier, H., H. Skouteris, et al. (2014). Child temperament and maternal predictors of preschool childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s eating and body mass index. A prospective study. Appetite 74(0): 125-132. Collins, M. E. (1991). Body figure perceptions and preferences among preadolescent children. International Journal of Eating Disorders 10(2): 199-208. del Mar Bibiloni, M., J. Pich, et al. (2013). Body image and eating patterns among adolescents. BMC public health 13(1): 1104. Dounchis, J. Z., H. A. Hayden, et al. (2001). Obesity, body image, and eating disorders in ethnically diverse children and adolescents. Body image, eating disorders, and obesity in youth: Assessment, prevention, and treatment: 67-98. Edlund, B., K. Halvarsson, et al. (1996). Eating Behaviours, and Attitudes to Eating, Dieting, and Body Image in 7Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã yearÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã old Swedish Girls. European Eating Disorders Review 4(1): 40-53. Fairburn, C. G., S. L. Welch, et al. (1997). Risk factors for bulimia nervosa: A community-based case-control study. Archives of General psychiatry 54(6): 509-517. Gluck, M. E. and A. Geliebter (2002). Racial/ethnic differences in body image and eating behaviors. Eating behaviors 3(2): 143-151. GonÃ §alves, S., M. Silva, et al. (2012). Disordered eating among preadolescent boys and girls: the relationship with child and maternal variables. Nutrients 4(4): 273-285. Hyun, M.-Y., Y.-E. Jung, et al. (2014). Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment 10: 797. Jaddoe, V. W. V., C. M. van Duijn, et al. (2012). The Generation R Study: design and cohort update 2012. European journal of epidemiology 27(9): 739-756. Jones, D. C. and J. K. Crawford (2005). Adolescent boys and body image: Weight and muscularity concerns as dual pathways to body dissatisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 34(6): 629-636. Kapka-Skrzypczak, L. (2012). Dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults-a population based study. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 19(2). Kotler, L. A., P. Cohen, et al. (2001). Longitudinal relationships between childhood, adolescent, and adult eating disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 40(12): 1434-1440. Kutlu, R. and S. Civi (2013). Evaluation of eating habits, body perception and depression status of university students. Gulhane Medical Journal 55(3): 196-202. McKnight, I. (2003). Risk factors for the onset of eating disorders in adolescent girls: results of the McKnight longitudinal risk factor study. American Journal of Psychiatry 160(2): 248-254. Mustillo, S., C. Worthman, et al. (2003). Obesity and psychiatric disorder: developmental trajectories. Pediatrics 111(4): 851-859. Nishizawa, Y., K. Kida, et al. (2003). Perception of selfÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã physique and eating behavior of high school students in Japan. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences 57(2): 189-196. OHaver, J., B. M. Melnyk, et al. (2009). The Relationship of Perceived and Actual Weight in Minority Adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 24(6): 474-480. Ohara, K., Y. Kato, et al. (2014). Eating behavior and perception of body shape in Japanese university students. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity 19(4): 461-468. Smolak, L. (2004). Body image in children and adolescents: where do we go from here? Body image 1(1): 15-28. Stice, E. (2002). Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: a meta-analytic review. Psychological bulletin 128(5): 825. Sukariyah, M. B. and R. A. Sidani (2014). Prevalence of and Gender Differences in Weight, Body, and Eating Related Perceptions among Lebanese High School Students: Implications for School Counseling. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 159: 184-191. Truby, H. and S. J. Paxton (2002). Development of the childrens body image scale. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 41(2): 185-203. Wardle, J., C. A. Guthrie, et al. (2001). Development of the childrens eating behaviour questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 42(07): 963-970. Wiedemann, A. A. and K. K. Saules (2013). The relationship between emotional eating and weight problem perception is not a function of body mass index or depression. Eating behaviors 14(4): 525-528. 1
Culture and Gender Differences in Communication CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION While studying culture and communication, it is found that gender is an important factor that makes a difference in communication. Using evidences and examples from local and international, highlight and explain those differences. In a wider context, the use of signs and symbols has different meaning in verbal and non-verbal communication. Using examples explain and illustrate the most popular signs and symbols used in communication worldwide and discuss the key differences in their meaning. Ã¢â¬ËFor men and women, communication can be a very long drive, using different roads most probably to get to the same place.Ã¢â¬â¢ Having said that, it would be appropriate to first give a definition of the word communication followed by what gender is all about. Therefore, communication is known as a two-way process involving individuals trying to seek mutual understanding. Initially, it does not involve only the process of exchanging informations, ideas and feelings but also helps to develop and share meaning. It generally connects people or places in society. Communication is an essential key function for the management of individual, be it in the society, in an organisation or at home. Intriguingly, nothing can operate effectively if communication does not prevail as it should. As planned, we have to give a definition of the word gender which is an important factor that creates a gap between males and females. Gender refers to the attitudes, feelings and behaviour that a giv en culture associates with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s biological sex. We also find it important to delineate culture which is the behaviour and belief of people depending on their particular social, ethnic or age group. Men and women are somehow being introduced to their particular gender roles at a very tender age. For example: Ã¢â¬Å"Little girls talk more indirectly; little boys talk directly. Little girls talk more with words; little boys use more actions.Ã¢â¬ Also, the differences can clearly be seen among teenagers in college and further at the workplace whereby women have the tendency to ask loads of questions before even starting the work as compared to men who are more prone to simply roll up their sleeves and get on with the work and assume that ladies are somehow worthless. As a matter of fact, these differences reflect in the: Style Content Structure Unique combination of influences on cognitive behavior According to researches, it can be said that men and women communicate differently by adopting distinct speech skills in regards to the situation they are facing, the purposes and the roles they play in society or at work. All these are consequently derived from gender differences emerged from both social and professional settings. Furthermore, gender can also be redefined as a paramount factor affecting communication within an organisation. In point of fact, gender differences are in one way or the other revealed during conflict or even serve as a cataclysm for conflicts while communicating. Generally speaking, women are famous to Ã¢â¬Ëread between the linesÃ¢â¬â¢ while men communicate to build up status. It is unfortunate that most of the times, girls use words to express their feelings, associate themselves emotionally or build rapport whereas men often contribute facts and figures as in a report. In regards to contents, men are more interested in talking about sports, money a nd business while ladies are always busy debating about feelings, relationships and people. Structure-wise, men are precise by directly coming to the point. Unlike women who are more detailed, regretful and animated, men are mostly not descriptive. Surprisingly, gender differences being a threat to the society and installing misunderstanding at work can however be beneficial in a certain way to both environments. The importance of communication maybe noticed in everyday life, for instance, a little connection can have a large impact and influence in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. We all share the same ideas that males grow up learning some essential elements considered as being the center of masculinity such as being successful, aggressive, sexual and self-reliant. Certainly most men individually see life as a competition, therefore it can be put forward that the way they communicate becomes more of a brawl where they have to win. On the other side of the coin, females are taught that appearance is important, showing sensitivity and care is a must and they should anywise expect negative treatment from others. It is believed that Ã¢â¬Ëthrough communication with others, we come to understand how society defines masculinity and feminity.Ã¢â ¬â¢ Let us see how we can proceed accordingly. Most women are conditioned by culture to maintain harmonious relationships with others. That condition is revealed in softened demands, constrained statement and generally more tentative or lack confidence speech. Both men and women differ in the way they manage people and give orders. Many well-known studies have featured the fact that women have the tendency to soften their demands and statements, as compared to men who tend to be more direct. Women for example, use tag lines, phrases like Ã¢â¬ËdonÃ¢â¬â¢t you thinkÃ¢â¬â¢ preceding the presentation of an idea, Ã¢â¬Ëif you donÃ¢â¬â¢t mindÃ¢â¬â¢ following a demand or Ã¢â¬Ëthis may be a crazy idea, butÃ¢â¬â¢ followed by a suggestion, trying to make their opinions and ideas be accepted and understood by others. As it has been mentioned above, in most cases women tend to ask more questions as compared to men. Indeed, asking, questions have different meanings when it comes to gender differences. Men ask questions for only one reason; to gather information. For women, asking questions have purposes to gather information, but as it can be noticed, women inquest when they already know the answer. The reason behind this is that they want to seek interest in what the other person has to say in order to cultivate the relationship. Moreover, be it in Mauritius or elsewhere, we normally observe that men are more likely to lean towards setting and acquiring goals contrary to women who show more passion for acceptance. Most men are known to act independently which means that they hardly seek advice or help from others while women chose to be in mutual understanding rather than showing unnecessary pride in most situations whereby they take decisions based on their colleagues. In most countries, men tend to expose their respect to their peers in the way the latter communicate opposed to women who show empathy through their actions. Also, women are well-known for their effective listening skills as compared to men. In addition to what has been said above, studies have proven that in Japan, men and women are expected to use different words to make reference to same points as compared to most other countries including Mauritius whereby both genders are supposed to use the same words to deliver a piece of information. Amazingly, it has been noticed that in the Chinese culture, the pitch and pronunciation that men and women use can differ. Men can take longer to express themselves as compared to women overall, of course depending on the topic raised. Similarly to the rest of the world, Chinese men converse more about politics and economy rather than family and education which are dedicated mainly for women. Unlike most Mauritian women, Chinese ones barely engaged themselves in conversation involving love and marriage. We also came to the conclusion that Chinese, Japanese and Indian women are not expected or rather allowed to talk about sensitive topic with strangers, contrary to Americans and Europ eans whether male or female who surely can interact with whoever they want. In Japan, men and women have different ways of communicating. Women in Japan speak more politely as compared to men. The Japanese language features elements that make womenÃ¢â¬â¢s speech sound polite and feminine. In the meanwhile, menÃ¢â¬â¢s speech sound less polite and masculine. The language difference between genders reinforces Japanese social norms. Where women are the subordinates of men. In England modern society, it would therefore appear that women are equal with men. However the harsh reality tells us that women are not provided with an equal opportunity even for discussion, due to the fact that the two sexes respectively command different communication styles. In other words, the language women use is different from the one that men use. For further information, we made some researches and decided to interview a few people in the sole aim to gather unbiased data regarding the main differences that exist between the communication that flows between local men and women. Surely, we were delighted to know that most women in Mauritius are not keen to get themselves involved in conversations with strangers. Adversely, the majority of the local men will not hesitate to start conversing with someone they come across. Men hereby find it easier and comfortable to interact with others opposed to women and we strongly believe that this is due to on the way they have been brought up and develop their personality. In point of fact, this can help in building new relationships. More onwards, we also understood that Mauritian men pay more attention to football and other sport games and women mostly to fashion and make up. There is also another interesting point that we would definitely like to add is that amongst the working class people in Mauritius, women have the tendency to communicate more about the price of food and children and men are happier talking about politics or which cars are available in the market. Also, alike to most countries, women in Mauritius are always engaged in trend of GOSSIPING contradictory to men who most of the time try to escape from it. For a fact, it can be observed that while travelling, we can see many key differences in gender communication around the globe. In terms of couples, we can see that Asian people find it normal to communicate at higher pitch as compared to Americans and Europeans who usually opt to talk at a lower pitch. Typically speaking, most local people whether men or women, they both communicate at high pitch depending on the regions from which they belong and circumstances. Assuredly, gender communication difference is a worldwide issue. Communication between men and women differ in many ways, affecting their speech and outcomes. Nonetheless there are many other differences that can be highlighted in the way men and women communicate but we do believe that the above examples would help you have an idea of people interact with each other on a day to day basis. Without a doubt, gender differences help to resolve conflicts and strengthen healthy relationships. Now we shall give you an insight of the gender differences of both local and international people: GENDER DIFFERENCES MEN (LOCAL INTERNATIONAL) WOMEN (LOCAL INTERNATIONAL) Conversation Report talking (12 500 words/day) Rapport talking (25 500 words/day) Problem-Solving Are problem solvers Desire to understand problems Changing Subjects Tend to focus on the details of fact May mix personal and business talk Requests Tend to seek the respect of their peers Care for the approval of peers Equality Relate to others as rivals Relate to others as equals Managing ups downs Freely offer advice and analysis Tend to ask for help, advice and directions Body Language Desires space Desire closeness, togetherness and affinity Feedback Choose or resolve by force, persuasion or majority rule More concerned with feelings It has been discussed before that woman is more expressive than men. Research has shown that women are more focused on social-emotional interactions with others. Men and women tend to cope with stress and difficulties differently. Gray, 1992 stated that men cope with stress by drawing themselves from the conversation while women cope by reaching out and talking about the cause of the stress. Gray coined the phrase, Ã¢â¬ËMen go to their caves and women talk.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is why; women in average speak about 25,500 words in a day and men in average speak about 12,500 words a day. Thusly it can be added that both gender should keenly comprehend each other in purpose to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Dreams, although often cut off are always necessary to keep the hope of people alive to fight against the inadequacies of the economic and social perils of life. Dreams are one of the most freely experienced actions by humans, and still it is the most rigid and unrealistic thought process that is part of our lives. The dream of most AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s at this time period surrounding the book Ã¢â¬Å"Of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬ was only a large cesspool of dying hopes that were kept alive by wishes and aspirations even without success. They often have no power fulfillment or credence to them even though we as humans put so much belief and effort in them. Joesph Fontenrose comments that the novel I about Ã¢â¬Å"the vanity of human wishesÃ¢â¬ (Fontenrose 375). Dreams and willpower are necessary to keep hope alive in people. What was once the land of opportunity was now the land of desperation. What was once the land of hope and optimism had become the land of despair. Sometimes these dream s become nightmares because of the hardships that are endured through the trials of life and society. Many immigrants from Europe coming to America in hope of prosperity and easy living found themselves in conditions that were paralleled by the conditions in the European slums of the inner city. Howard Levant made the statement after a critical reading of the novel that Ã¢â¬Å"the good life is impossible because humanity is flawedÃ¢â¬ (Owens 146). The horrors of the American Civil War and the growth of towns with slums as bad as those in Europe, and the corruption of the American political system led to many shattered dreams. For society as a whole the American dream ended with the stock market crash on Wall Street in 1929.This was the start of the Great Depression that would affect the whole world during the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. However the dream kept some hopes alive and could not be suppressed by the heartbreaking circumstances endured by all Americans. Many moved to the west in Cal ifornia to escape from their land in the mid west. Californians who lived through the 1920s and 1930s must have felt as though they were on a roller coaster. In a dizzying cycle of boom and bust, a decade of spectacular prosperity was followed by the worst economic collapse in the state's history. Ramshackle encampments, such as Pipe City in Oakland, filled with forlorn unemployed workers and their families.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Personal Narrative- A Non-traditional Love Story I first met Tyler at "Above and Beyond", a support group for brain parasites. I don't have brain parasites, and neither does he, but that's where we met. I had seen him before at other support groups, and he never used his real name. He would always glare at me, as if I was intruding on him or something. I've dated a lot of weird guys before, guys that liked to cross-dress, guys that couldn't get enough body piercings, but Tyler takes the cake. We had our first conversation at "Above and Beyond." It wasn't a pleasant one. He couldn't handle having me around at all his support groups. I was invading his space, he told me. He was being such an ass. He threatened to expose me, to tell everyone at the support groups that I didn't really have brain parasites or ascending bowel cancer or whatever else. That wasn't going to work - I could expose him just as easily. We decided to take turns going to support groups. We decided that was the only way we could handle the issue. I played his little game for a while, but then I decided to cheat. I thought I'd show up at one of his support groups, just to piss him off. But he wasn't there. Tyler had stopped going to all of his support groups, the fucker. God, I was angry. Who knows how long I'd been missing out. One night, I just got sick of everything. I grabbed my bottle of Xanax pills and ate the rest of them. I just thought I'd drift off peacefully and never have to worry about my shit job, my crappy apartment, or anything ever again. I didn't really want to commit suicide, I was just bored, I guess. I was just about to fall asleep forever when you-know-who called. Tyler Durden. That crazy, crazy Tyler. I can't even remember what we talked about, but before I knew it - he was knocking on my door. I was really loopy, could hardly stand up. We took the bus back to his place - a rickety old wooden house on Paper Street. He would have to keep me awake all night, I told him, or I would die. So, he did, in that perverted Tyler way. Over and over. He was great though, must've had the Kama Sutra memorized from cover to cover. Personal Narrative- A Non-traditional Love Story :: Personal Narrative Essays Personal Narrative- A Non-traditional Love Story I first met Tyler at "Above and Beyond", a support group for brain parasites. I don't have brain parasites, and neither does he, but that's where we met. I had seen him before at other support groups, and he never used his real name. He would always glare at me, as if I was intruding on him or something. I've dated a lot of weird guys before, guys that liked to cross-dress, guys that couldn't get enough body piercings, but Tyler takes the cake. We had our first conversation at "Above and Beyond." It wasn't a pleasant one. He couldn't handle having me around at all his support groups. I was invading his space, he told me. He was being such an ass. He threatened to expose me, to tell everyone at the support groups that I didn't really have brain parasites or ascending bowel cancer or whatever else. That wasn't going to work - I could expose him just as easily. We decided to take turns going to support groups. We decided that was the only way we could handle the issue. I played his little game for a while, but then I decided to cheat. I thought I'd show up at one of his support groups, just to piss him off. But he wasn't there. Tyler had stopped going to all of his support groups, the fucker. God, I was angry. Who knows how long I'd been missing out. One night, I just got sick of everything. I grabbed my bottle of Xanax pills and ate the rest of them. I just thought I'd drift off peacefully and never have to worry about my shit job, my crappy apartment, or anything ever again. I didn't really want to commit suicide, I was just bored, I guess. I was just about to fall asleep forever when you-know-who called. Tyler Durden. That crazy, crazy Tyler. I can't even remember what we talked about, but before I knew it - he was knocking on my door. I was really loopy, could hardly stand up. We took the bus back to his place - a rickety old wooden house on Paper Street. He would have to keep me awake all night, I told him, or I would die. So, he did, in that perverted Tyler way. Over and over. He was great though, must've had the Kama Sutra memorized from cover to cover.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
The definition of success differs from person to person and field to field. One could take economic success as a touchstone to label a person successful in life, ignoring his of her other failures, like divorce, health, inefficiency, etc. Others may look at a capacity for overcoming challenges, irrespective of what someone earns and the nature of their private life. So who is a successful person and who is a failure? Do school and college grades and examination results provide a way of predicting or ensuring future success? If that is true, then we should encourage as many young people as possible to go to university and work hard to gain formal qualifications. But is it true? ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t some college drop-outs like Bill Gates and Richard Branson hugely successful icons of success? And should we automatically consider the millions of young people who have not had the opportunity to gain academic certificates to be failures in life? Success never depends upon grades. If success and opportunities were measured by grades then the corporate world and potential marriage partners would not ask for biodata in resumes, where other qualifications are also mentioned. Nor would they interview the prospects in order to find out what they are like as people, rather they would give a blind appointment to the people with the best paper qualifications. So qualifications alone are never enough, success depends upon physical characteristics, personality, and a willingness to work hard. Success is not getting a grade or a degree, if that was it then why arenÃ¢â¬â¢t all the graduates from Harvard, Oxford or Cambridge uniformly successful? The rule of success is hard work and destiny of course. If a student of engineering gets good grades but he is not practically effective in relationship-buildings and solving crises or proper planning, even though he may be successful in getting a job but it will not lead him far. On the way he is sure to fade out. If you look into a directory of successful people who are doctors, engineers and IT professionals, then you will notice that many of them dream to be employed by people like Bill Gates or Richard Branson, who are prosperous despite not having college degrees. In other words, prosperity does not depend upon academic qualifications but upon opportunities provided by entrepreneurs who may not be necessarily be highly educated. Successful entrepreneurs even benefit from not having academic qualifications, because going to college and taking examinations forces people to learn and think like millions of other graduates. This actually makes it less likely that they will come up with the truly mould-breaking insights and Ã¢â¬Å"disruptiveÃ¢â¬ ideas on which successful innovations and new business models are built. Unfortunately the materialistic world has changed the concept of success. It has become a rat-race where every student chases grades and therefore the entire perception of success and prosperity has changed. Rather than studying to reach our full potential, we do it because we think it is necessary for a successful career. So we spend ten years in school and a few more years of our precious life in college to get educated, then more time is passed in hunting for jobs. Even after that we may find ourselves in the wrong profession and lacking job satisfaction. And then recession comes along, when we are told that our wealth has been blown away by the foolishness of expensive fat-salaried CEOs. Now comes a time when we go to work with a constant fear of losing the job we donÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy. Is this the correct understanding of prosperity? So now the definition of success is changed. If you are able to save your job then you are successful! Can academic qualification stop us from becoming a civilization of drunkards, rapists and war-mongers, marked by broken families, domestic violence and crime? If you look at countries where the largest number of people have higher academic qualifications, they are the ones most affected by social breakdown. And would you call the conduct of the US wars on Iraq and Afghanistan a successful example of the superiority of the US economy and society? In fact true success is shown in having the moral courage to speak out against atrocities and injustice, showing generosity towards the poor, and respecting our parents. These are characteristics which are found in people from all social and educational backgrounds, but often absent in many educated Americans and Europeans, in spite of the universities they have been to and the grades they have achieved. Often academic qualifications have no real relevance to the jobs graduates are employed to do. A few decades ago employers in areas such as banking, engineering, management and government service recruited people straight from school at the age of 15 or 16, training them on the job and promoting them to higher levels of responsibility according to their ability. Today none of these jobs has changed very much, but all now require applicants have a university degree. Why has this changed? One reason is that the upper and middle classes are trying to protect their own jobs Ã¢â¬â demanding new recruits have expensive academic qualifications excludes many talented young people from poorer backgrounds.
This paper seeks to provide comparative analysis of wee puerility political program line polity between France and the unify States. The treatment will focus on the programs melodic phrase and what the programs were intended to reach. The study will ascertain at the focus, of the programs, the beneficiaries and the woo. In analyzing the early puerility insurance insurance insurance constitution out f atomic reduce 18 in the both countries, the paper assesses the successes as well as the shortcomings of the policy programs. The federal official official governing body has not have a policy on early childishness knowledge that is relevant in the nation.As oppose to the ecumenical early child fostering policy in France. The U. S. brass has only been supporting specific pre groom programs for those children from piteous neighborhoods and low income families. This kink is also evident in the sundry(a) states which ingest not been able to come up with ear ly childishness policy that can be used uniformly by pedagogics stakeholders throughout the state. Earl childishness tuition program is extensively leftover in the hands of mystical cultureal activity providers through kindergartens. (Mitchell, A. , Ripple, C. , & Chanana, N. , 1998, p. 24).The Early childhood rearing policy by the authorities activity is define in its actions which in regulating the film and supply of early childhood tuition services. In implementing early childhood policy, the government provides direct and indirect fiscal subsidies to hugger-mugger providers of these services in the form of grants, contracts and revenue incentives. Provision of direct and indirect financial support to p arents of children in early childhood program. This support may be in the form of cash benefits, tax benefits to scratch the constitute of this service and vouchers to deport for the service.The government also participates by regulating players in the field of early childhood statement through legislation. Early childhood development program in the U. S are run on a honest mean solar twenty-four hours of part magazine primer coat and they include pre-kindergartens, kindergartens, compensatory bringing up programs and nursery schools. The early(a) programs that support early childhood education include child charge centres, family support programs, beforehand and after school programs, family type day business homes. Because there is no low-cal line between the government and head-to-head support in this sector.(OECD res publica theme, 2000, p. 5) in that respect is no clear data concerning the dam period of early childhood education in United States. However, the federal spending on the program has been very minimal compared to graze k-12. Studies in the year 2002 reveals that the states fagged 2. 5 one million million dollar bills on early childhood education while the federal government spent 6. 5billion on early childhood program. This is in exclusion of bullion spent on pre-primary education for special students. This is the reversion of the slip of paper in France where the government salutary funds its early childhood education program.Then enrolment in early childhood program for the year 2002 was estimated at 750,000 with 85% enrolled in private institutions. In the United States, the government has a policy that ensures quality, affordability, and availability of child carry on for in all families. The electric razor Care Bureau administers federal funds to states, territories, and tribes to assist eligible families including low-income families. The childcare bureaus provide childcare for children when the names work or participate in allowable education or training activities.Through the Child Care Bureau funds versatile Technical Assistance projects that promote quality, build up program administration are supported. The funds are also used to pay Good Start which is th e presidents initiative towards early childhood education as well as evince out research to help policy makers. The child care programs in the United States involved the administrators, parents and other stakeholders than in the case of France that is much regulated from above. consort to OECD report (2000, p. 21).Most children are enrolled in private institutions compared to those in public institutions with most parents fetching their children for part time programs. This is illustrated in the tabularize below showing enrolment in early childhood education programs in thousands. The only early childhood policy that received direct support by the federal government is the introduction of query down program to take care of those children from low income families. This program is funded by the federal government of the U. S since it caters for the children of the financially take parents from poor neighbourhood. According to OECD report (2000, p.18) The cost of funding this p rogram has increased steadily, reach almost $4. 7 billion in fiscal year 1999 and $5. 27 billion in fiscal year 2000. This program was started as a strategy to acquit with problems associated with children from poor neighbourhood. Dealing with their emotional, cognitive, social and cognitive deficits ensured a well rounded single who was prepared to adopt a aliveness style that made them productive individuals from poor homes. The major aim is even so to academically prepare students for their primary school studies. According to Mitchell, A. , Ripple, C. , & Chanana, N. (1998, p. 34-50).Research shows that those students who had down the stairsgone early childhood programs interchangeable genius Start had fewer referrals for curative classes or special education. These students were also more believably to remain in unceasing classes throughout their public school years. few retentions rate as preschool graduates were less apparent to repeat grades. The students maintai ned excellent gobs very few of them had failing grades in their school years. The students were acknowledged by their teachers as having great social and emotional maturity date and had a high school probability of complementary their high school studies without dropping out. repayable development of positive attitude round school at an early bestride, these students had greater academic motivation, on-task behavior, capacity for independent work, and time spent on homework. Lower incidence of absenteeism/detentions. Graduates had lower incidences of absenteeism and detentions. Preschool graduates had much higher gain ground on measures of attitude toward school and toward position subject areas those who attended early childhood education are found to have better self-esteem, greater internal venue of control compared to those who never attend the program.Preschool education is believed to help in preventing unwanted pregnancies among unexampled school girls. The program is also believed to centre incidences of indiscipline standardized drug abuse and delinquent acts among students, this some researchers believe is payable to the introduction of rules and regulations to students at an early age and so contributing to positive upbringing. collectible to improved self esteem developed from an early age, preschool graduates are more likely to participate in social activities like sports and community work.As opposed to those who did not attend early education, the beneficiaries have a better meaning for education and develop high future aspirations. This also contributes to the likelihood of them enrolling and completing their secondary education. These benefits of early childhood education are extending to the society as beneficiaries have a higher chess opening of securing better paying jobs hence reduction dependency in the society. There is high unlikelihood that these people will pursue in antisocial behavior in the society. (Morgan, G. , Azer, S. , Costley, J. , Genser, A., Goodman, I. , Lombardi, J. , and McGimsey, B. , 1993, p. 45, 78). The Head Start program is however accused of contributing to inequality in the education arena as those who are considered financially stable have been ignored. This is no longer a shortfall in France as their early childhood policy caters for all children despite their family reachs. The increasing deed of mothers securing jobs is however increasing government appointment in provision of early childhood programs especially in those kindergartens which are combine in public primary schools.For instance, territorial dominion of Columbia is made kindergarten attendance a legal requirement for children. (OECD Country report, 2000, p. 14) The plot below illustrate the increasing number of working mothers with children under age sestet due U. S policy on Early childhood education and care between 1960 and 1999. Despite lack of world-wide policy regarding early childhood educati on, a lot of expenditure has been incurred in supporting efforts towards achieving the same. The figures reported by OECD report( 2000, p. 23) is an illustration of cost of efforts employed by U.S to achieve ECEC as compared between 1992 and 1999 constant dollar reported in millions of dollars. As opposed to the United States, France has a clear government policy regarding earl childhood education. The program is in public funded and caters for those children between the ages of 2-6 year olds known as Ecole Maternelle. The system has specific programs for those children under age trine and it is administered under the Ministry of Education delivered under education auspices of the ministere de la Jeunesse, de lEducation nationale et de la Recherche.(Oberhuemer, P. , & Ulich, M. , 1997, p. 27). These programs are freely provided by the government for eight hours during the day including breaks like lunchtime. Extension beyond these hours is nonmandatory and those parents who work for longer hours can pay for additive hours that their children are taken care of at early childhood education centres. Since these programs are meant to benefit children and their parents who earn poorly, the additional charges levied on parents take into consideration the parents income.Any child get-go school has to go through ecole maternelle which is the preparatory level in the education system. (OECD Country report, 2004, p. 4-7). Early preschool education is divided into triad shares namely the little section, middle section and large section. The little section is meant for three year olds, the middle section is for four-year-olds and large section is for five-year-olds. Two year olds belong to to very little section.France is also committed to empowering the low income parents just like Head Start in the United States hence the government organizes bridging activities for those who are about to start schooling in poor neighborhoods. such a program is supposed to fami liarize the learners with the academic in readiness for school system. The table below shows the trends in the part of children in the ecole maternelle by age as from the year 1960-2002 according to French background report in 2003.