Sunday, May 24, 2020

Compare Modernist and Symbolic Interpretive in Different...

Introduction In this modern era, the global business environment is changing so fast that organizations need to manage differently to suit customers’ unlimited wants. Organization theory is an area of study where organizations are the phenomenon of interest for theory that applies to everybody. Organization are defined as a consciously coordinated social entity, with a relatively, identifiable boundary that performs upon consciously basis to accomplish a mutual goal. Organizations are structured the way they are because different organization perceive and do things differently. Effectiveness of an organization is based on how they are being run: culture, structure and power. Nowadays, flexibility and creativity are primary elements of the†¦show more content†¦(Locke, 1788) It is believed that rationality allows people to control environment through scientific knowledge. Enactment is the impact on the world with different things. For example, Steve Jobs have made the world differen t with the invention of his Apple product. Institutionalization is where others will also to do the same thing when there is a person who starts the lead; which Coles started to give out discount on petrol, Safeway do the same thing as well. Organizational structure The organizational structure is a framework that a company uses to differentiate authority and roles, and the way information flows. Organizational structure is divided into two forms: mechanistic and organic structures. Mechanistic structure is used in modernism where there is high degree of differentiation (numbers of levels in hierarchy- vertical and horizontal), centralization (lower levels have to report to top management), standardization (bureaucracy and standard process), formalization (rules), specialization (division of labor to do only specific task) and low integration (low coordination of activities) between functional designs. Modernism has tall organizational structure as it consists of many hierarchical levels. Mechanistic structure is used in stable companies such as universities and government organizations. According to Adam Smith, division of labor can produce economicShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Theory Multiple Perspectives1514 Words   |  7 Pagesorganizati onal phenomena should be studied in different ways. Different ways of thinking produce different perspectives which come to different concepts and theories. In this essay, multiple perspectives which are modern, symbolic-interpretive and post-modern will be defined. By examine the assumptions, which are ontology and epistemology underlying each of these perspectives, they can be compared. Also, how these perspectives contribute to different ways to think about organizational culture willRead MoreOrganizational Diagnosis4870 Words   |  20 PagesLinda Terry Abstract An organizational analysis and diagnosis was conducted on Giga-Net Solutions (GNS) from the symbolic-interpretive and modernist organization theory perspectives. GNS structure, technology, and organization environment has a major impact on the organization success and management. This paper strives to outline the differences in the symbolic-interpretive and modernist assumptions in an effort of revealing the effectiveness of this organization. This will be accomplished by firstRead MoreModernism, Symbolic-Interpretive, Postmodernism Analyzing About Mcdonald3085 Words   |  13 PagesUnderstanding organization: Modernism, symbolic-interpretive, postmodernism analyzing about McDonald 1- Introduction: The task of this report is to analyze McDonalds using the modernist analysis tools to describe the organization. McDonalds is a large Multinational fast food franchise originating from USA. McDonald’s main product which they produce is burgers but it now has a wide range of products available for a wider choice of customers. The reason for a wider range of products isRead MoreU10A1 Project – Organization Theory Project4528 Words   |  19 PagesOrganization Theory Project Modernism and Symbolic Interpretation Perspectives of Facilities Management OM8010 – Principles of Organization Theory and Practice. Capella University [pic] Elizabeth G. Wilkerson 13230 Helotes Circle Helotes, TX 78023 2105502442 EGreen8@satx.rr.com Instructor: Betty Martin-Lewis, PhD Modernism and Symbolic Interpretation Perspectives of Facilities Management Introduction Modernism and symbolic interpretations are the two perspectivesRead MoreClifford Geertz - Interpretive Anthropology2636 Words   |  11 Pagesfurther. What Geertz was trying to do by looking at symbolism was trying to break down the complexity of meanings within cultures. Clifford Geertz was a man who believed that Anthropology should not be recognised as a factual science but as an interpretive science. He did not believe that there was such thing as social facts, so therefore we will see that Anthropology he understood as a way of interpreting people, by looking at things such as symbolism. He wanted to really understand what cultureRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 PagesMartin Lindell, Hanken Business School, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland This book makes it easier to understand the current stand of organization theory. I strongly recommend it to anyone seriously interested in the different intellectual traditions that contribute to our understanding of organizations. Professor Tomas Mà ¼llern, Jà ¶nkà ¶ping International Business School, Sweden . McAuley, Duberley and Johnson’s Organizational Theory takes you on a joyful ride throughRead MoreTheories of Organizational Behavior10512 Words   |  43 Pagessystematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. It encompasses the study of organizations from multiple viewpoints, methods, and levels of analysis. Some of the major ways of division are into modern, symbolic, and postmodern or micro organizational behavior—which refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting and macro strategic management and organizational theory which studies whole organizations and industries. Concepts ofRead MoreEssay about Phd Comprehensive Exam. in Leadership15004 Words   |  61 PagesRequirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy by George E. Anderson III Leadership School of Business and Technology Capella University QUESTION 1 The mixed method has recently become a popular method of research. Analyze and compare the mixed method, qualitative and quantitative research methods. Evaluate the effectiveness of each as a valid method of research on models of military leadership. Introduction The sociological effects discussed by Kuhn (1996) as toRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pageswere almost invariably lives of drudge labor in urban sweatshops, on tropical plantations, or on the wharves of an expansive, global export economy. Throughout the century, advances in human rights, which were spread ever more broadly among different social groups—including women, laborers, INTRODUCTION †¢ 3 ethnic minorities, and gays—made strides that were perhaps greater than all of those achieved in previous history combined. During the same time span, however, state tyranny

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Kit Kat market research - 2662 Words

Market Research Report Dorottya Vargyas Introduction: In this report we would like to present the results of our research which was made related to KitKat. Aim of the research: The main aim of the survey is to find out if there is any need for sugar free Kit Kat product in the Hungarian market, and whether people with weight problems or people with diabetes are more interested in sugar free Kit Kat products. To clear up the chocolate consumption and the eating habits of the Hungarian consumers. First of all we would like to shortly introduce the Nestlà © S.A. which is the producer company of KitKat and after that a short review†¦show more content†¦Our online survey was filled out by 116 persons. Our target group is almost the whole Hungarian society especially those who have diabetes or weight problems The survey consisted of 22 questions and we asked people about their chocolate consumption habits, about KitKat and about diabetic chocolates. 1st question: Do you like to try out new tastes? According to the data gained from the answers of the first question we can draw the conclusion that the people in our sample are tending to try out new tastes. These answers are favorable for us because, as we mentioned before, we are planning to penetrate the market with a new, sugar-free KitKat. 2nd question: How often do you consume chocolate? In this question we were interested about the frequency of chocolate consumption. As we can see the majority (43%) of our sampling group consumes chocolate products weekly which is a positive result in case of our survey. 3rd question: What type of chocolate do you prefer the most? In this question we tried to collect information about the type of chocolates what consumers prefer principally. The reason why we would liked to pick up information about it is the following: if we have the opportunity to enter the market with a new, sugar-free KITKAT chocolate, we have to know the customers’Show MoreRelatedNestle Business Case Study1733 Words   |  7 PagesKit Kat: Revitalising a Brand Leader A Nestlà © case study Page 1: Introduction All products have a life-cycle. It starts with preparations for the product s launch, followed by the launch itself. Some products are an immediate success; they capture public imagination. Often this results from well targeted, exciting promotional and advertising activity and from careful market research that has identified a genuine gap in the market. Other products take longer to come to consumers attention, andRead MoreMarketing Analysis Of Nestle s Marketing Strategy1070 Words   |  5 Pagesin Australia between 2014 and 2015. This analysis will focus on Nestlà © Kit Kat ‘Break Rescue’ campaign that ran from May to October 2014. The series of four television advertisements show a team of Breakguards that intervene when a break is in danger of being interrupted. Each advertisement is set in a relatable break environment that demonstrates how a Kit Kat and ‘Save your Break’. Product analysis The confectionery market consists of the sale of sugar confectionery and chocolate confectioneryRead MoreUnilever V Nestle1235 Words   |  5 Pagesoperate in a global market place and to develop appropriate strategies. A global strategy is an organisational plan that takes into account these new global realities. Both Nestle and Unilever have developed global distribution and marketing networks, based on their powerbrands i.e. market leading brands that are recognisable in nearly every country in the world. Both Nestle and Unilever have many powerbrands. Key aspects of global strategy include: 1. Treating the global market as the domesticRead MoreKitkat Case Study2808 Words   |  12 PagesMaintenance of a Classic Brand Name Introduction Kit Kat was launched in 1937. Since then, it has consistently been one of the best selling chocolate bars on the market and has acquired an instantly recognisable brand name and identity. In 1997, British sales of Kit Kat amounted to some  £227 million, which made it easily the most popular confectionery product on the market. Forty four Kit Kats are consumed every second in the UK! The UK confectionery market is worth over  £5 billion per annum and is highlyRead MoreIntroduction Of The Hershey Company Essay1099 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction to Business The Hershey Company Introduction The Hershey Company produces the best chocolate according to a survey taken among my coworkers. This company is well known for their Hershey s Kisses, Kit-Kat, Whopper s, Reese s Peanut Butter Cups and much more! Personally Kit-Kat is my favorite. 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Firstly giving a brief background on Chinese New Year, secondly providing a literature review on Limited edition products and Special Edition products. Thirdly explain customer benefit(s)/value proposition pricing, design, segmentation, targeting positioning, and competition. Lastly address the key market strategies and tactics to be implemented. ChineseRead MoreThe Meaning of Having a Relationship with a Brand1718 Words   |  7 PagesSons9780471485902http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=K4AVfoJX6wMC( HYPERLINK l _ENREF_4 o Peppers, 2004 #250 Peppers Rogers, 2004). Personal experience and knowledge on consumers having relationships with brands Brands are a strong and powerful force in the market place and they drive consumer perceptions and have great significance in their lives. Relationships do exist between consumers and the brands they purchase. This comes greatly from personal experience which shows that consumers like to feel the existenceRead MoreMarketing Campaign Analysis Marking Guide Essay2414 Words   |  10 Pagesproduct or service. †¢ The organisation that provides the product or service, including any mission statements, visions or goals. †¢ The industry and the markets that the organisation operates in. †¢ The form of marketing media that is used 10 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2 2 1.5 1.5 Segmentation †¢ The different aspects of segmentation and the effects †¢ Target market has been identified †¢ Positioning strategy method is defined including reasons 25 10 5 10 7 0 6 Findings Discusses: †¢ Student demonstrates depthRead MoreEssay about Nestle Distribution Channel2351 Words   |  10 Pagesfor an organisation to dominate in the market but today due to lot of different methods, channels and modern tools for marketing and functioning of the organisation, the world has become very competitive. In this assignment the author is concentrating on two major players in this competition, the distribution channels and the sales force. The company in discussion here is Nestlà © UK and the product for narrow research is Nestlà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s own most successful brand â€Å"Kit Kat†. Nestlà © homes itself in Switzerland

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Inventory Management on Performance Free Essays

string(18) " ever do the job\." DECLARATION I, Lucy Lakot, do declare hereby that this proposal is my original work and that it has not been submitted for an award of a diploma or a degree in any institution of higher learning anywhere. Signature†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Date †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ APPROVAL This is to satisfy that this research proposal is written under my supervision and is now ready for submission to the Faculty of business and development studies (FBDS) Signed†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Date†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Mr. We will write a custom essay sample on Inventory Management on Performance or any similar topic only for you Order Now Mshilla Maghanga DEDICATION I dedicate this proposal to my late mother, Mrs Adong Santina, my father, Mr. Pungole, my brother Okello Innocent, late Okello Alex, my beloved sister Alal Cavin, Atenyo Nighty, Aol Grace and Lucy Lakot TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Pages DECLARATIONi APPROVALii DEDICATIONiii TABLE OF CONTENTSiv LISTS OF ABBREVATIONS/ACRONYMSviii LIST OF TABLESix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1 1. 0Introduction1 1. 1Background1 1. 3Purpose of the Study3 1. 4Objectives of the Study4 1. 5Research Questions4 1. 6Scope of the Study4 1. 6. 1Geographical scope4 1. 6. 2Subject Scope5 1. 6. 3Time Scope5 1. 7 Significance of the Study5 1. Structure of the Research Proposal6 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW7 2. 0Introduction7 2. 1The Concept of Inventory Management7 2. 2Techniques of Inventory Management in Organization8 2. 2. 1First In First Out (FIFO)8 2. 2. 2Last In Fast Out (LIFO)9 2. 2. 3Weighted Average9 2. 2. 4The Re Order Level System (ROL)/ Fixed Order Point System9 2. 2. 5The Periodic Review System/ Fixed Interval10 2. 2. 6The Economic Order Quantity Analysis (EOQ)10 2. 2. 7The ABC Anal ysis10 2. 2. 8Just In Time Technique10 2. 3Principles of Good Inventory Management11 2. 3. Cleanliness and Organization11 2. 3. 2The Principles of Stock Rotation12 2. 3. 3Tracking12 2. 4Organizational Performance12 2. 4. 1Indicators of Performance14 2. 4. 2Social Responsibility15 2. 4. 3Strategic Cost Management15 2. 4. 4Information Sharing15 2. 4. 5Flexibility16 2. 5Relationship between Inventory Management and Performance16 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY18 3. 0Introduction18 3. 1Research Design18 3. 2Area of study18 3. 3Target population18 3. 4Population and Sample Size19 3. 4. 1Procedures of Data Collection20 3. 4. 2Sample Technique20 . 5 Data Sources20 3. 5. 1Primary Data21 3. 5. 2Secondary Data21 3. 6Data Collection methods21 3. 6. 1Questionnaires21 3. 6. 2Observation guide22 3. 6. 3Interview guide22 3. 7 Data Processing and Analysis22 3. 7. 1Data Analysis and Management22 3. 8Ethical Considerations23 3. 9Limitation of the Study23 REFERENCE25 APPENDICES27 APENDIX 1: WORK PLAN 20122 7 APENDIX 2: BUDGET ESTIMATES28 APPENDIX 3: QUESTIONAIRE INSTRUMENTS29 SECTION A: Demographic Characteristic29 SECTION B: Techniques of inventory management in Anaka General Hospital? 0 SECTION C: Indicator of the organizational performance31 SECTION D: The relationship between inventory management and organizational performance33 SECTION E: Evaluation of the factors that affects the performance of Anaka General Hospital34 LISTS OF ABBREVATIONS/ACRONYMS AGHAnaka General Hospital AVSIAssociazione Volontari Peril Servizio Internationale DHODistrict Health Officer EOQEconomic Order Quantity FIFOFirst in First out LIFOLast in First out MSMedical Superintendent NDLGNwoya District Local Government PHCPrimary Health Care ROLReorder Level SWOTStrength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat WHOWorld Health Organization LIST OF TABLES Table 1: 3 The researcher samples sizes CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1. 0Introduction This chapter highlights the inventory management and performance in general public Hospital case study of Anaka General Hospital Nwoya District. This chapter gives the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and report structure. . 1Background Anaka General Hospital (AGH) was constructed in 1969 and opened in 1974 by the president of the Government of Uganda at that time. It is a district Hospital with 100 bed capacity, it is the referral facility and head quarter for Nwoya Health sub district. It provides all primary health care services (PHC), for examples curative, preventive, promotive and rehabilitation to Anaka sub-county and referral to the entire district. The vision is to improve the health of the people of Nwoya district in order to promote a healthy and productive population In early profits and non-profit making organizations, inventories constitute an important element in the management of the organization. The need for inventory management is influenced by the capacity of managing decisions since the existence of inventories will be determined by the capacity management strategies which are to be employed ( Wild, 1995). Inventory management refers to the organizational efforts and procedures aimed at protecting the firm from extensive or inadequate levels of inventories and to maintain sufficient inventory for smooth production and sales (Pandey, 2003). Inventory management in Anaka General Hospital stores focuses on how many units of each inventory items are to be held in stock, how much should be issued at a given time and at what point should inventory be issued and dispatched ( Johns, 2002). For effective management of inventories, co-operation of the various departments in the organization is required. The departments vary from organization to another but they usually involve the purchasing department as the most important although each of which has a role to play in coordination amongst themselves to facilitate efficient and smooth process of ordering, receiving, issuing and usage of materials is required (White, 1997). When inventories are properly managed, it leads to increased production hence improved organizational performance. Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs or goals and objectives. According to Richard et al. (2009) organizational performance encompasses three specific areas of a firm outcome: financial performance, product market performance, and shareholder return. In recent years, many organizations have attempted to manage organizational performance using the balanced scorecard methodology where performance is tracked and measured in multiple dimensions such as: In recent years, many organizations have attempted to manage organizational performance using the balanced scorecard methodology where performance is tracked and measured in multiple dimensions such as:- customer service , social responsibility and employee stewardship Although the Balanced Scorecard has become very popular, there is no single version of the model that has been universally accepted. The diversity and unique requirements of different enterprises suggest that no one-size-fits-all approach will ever do the job. You read "Inventory Management on Performance" in category "Papers" Performance measurement is the use of statistical evidence to determine progress towards specific defined organizational objectives. There are many types of measurements. In school, exams are graded to establish the academic abilities; in sports, time is clocked in split seconds to verify the athletic abilities. Similarly in organizations, there are various tools and measurements to determine how well it performs. Gamble, Strickland and Thompson (2007, p. 99) provide a comprehensive method for measuring performance of organizations. How well each company performs is dependent on the strategic plan. Some of the measurements include basic financial ratios such as debt-to-equity ratio and if the levels are an issue with creditworthiness. 1. 2Statement of the Problem Inventory management is concerned with the management of inventories that are crucial for the efficient and effective running of an organization. However, even if Anaka General Hospital is practicing good inventory management techniques/practices, it has continuously failed to meet the expectations of its customers that is to say the patients in the hospitals and the health centers it serves (The District Board of Survey Report 2011). These facts may be due to untimely delivery of medical supplies, poor quality of the medical supplies as well as employing incompetent workers who lack skills and the knowledge required. This has impacted on the general performance of the Hospital negatively; therefore it is upon this basis that encourages the researcher to carry out an investigation into this anomaly hence prompting the research. 1. 3Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to find out whether inventory management affects performance in Anaka General Hospital, Nwoya district 1. 4Objectives of the Study The specific objectives of the study will be: 1. To find out the techniques used in inventory management in Anaka General Hospital, Nwoya District 2. To establish the levels of performance in Anaka General Hospital, Nwoya District 3. To examine the relationship between inventory management and performance in Anaka General Hospital, Nwoya District 1. 5Research Questions In order to arrive at the above set objectives, the study will focus on the following research questions. 1. What are the techniques used in inventory management in Anaka General Hospital? 2. What are the levels of performance in Anaka General Hospital? 3. What is the relationship between inventory management and performance in Anaka General Hospital? 1. 6Scope of the Study . 6. 1Geographical scope The study will be carried in Anaka General Hospital Nwoya district. This is chosen because the researcher stays within Anaka Town Council and it’s cheaper in terms of transport and accommodation. 1. 6. 2Subject Scope The study will cover the important aspects in the variables under the study by taking into account the techniques of inventory management, importance of inventory management and the indicators of performance in Anaka General Hospital 1. 6. 3Time Scope The study will be undertaken within a period of five months ranging from February 2012-June 2012. This time is chosen to provide a good cut for the attainment and access to the most recent data on inventory management and performance in Anaka General Hospital. 1. 7 Significance of the Study The study is expected to benefit and contribute through the following ways. 1. The study is part of the partial requirements for the award of a Bachelor Degree in Business Administration in Gulu University 2. The study will also help the researcher to widen the understanding of the relationship between inventory management and its associated costs and will help in acquiring more knowledge in the variable under study. . The study may also act as a basis for future research in the field of inventory management and performance. 4. The study may help policy makers in coming up with the procedures and strategies in inventory management and performance. 1. 8Structure of the Research Proposal Chapter one contains the introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the stud y, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study and scope of the study. Chapter two contains the review of relevant literature that has been advanced by different writers in the field of inventory management and performance with the aim of finding the relationship between the two variables. Chapter three consists of descriptions of how the study will be conducted that is, introduction, research design, sampling design, sample size, sampling population, sources of data, data collection methods, data processing analysis and interpretation and limitations to the study. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 0Introduction This chapter presents the existing literature in the field of inventory management and performance . Here the concept of inventory management is defined according to different authors, techniques of inventory management, principles of inventory management, organizational performance, indicators of performance and the relationship between inventory management and performance are presented among others. 2. 1The Concept of Inventory Management Inventory management refers to the organizational efforts and procedures aimed at protecting the firm from excessive and inadequate levels of inventories and to maintain sufficient inventories for the smooth production (Pandey, 2003). Inventory management is concerned essentially with the use and control of inventories. The need for inventory is influenced by capacity decisions since the existence of inventories will in parts be determined by the capacity management strategies which are to be employed ( Wild, 2002). According to Gilbert et al (2000) inventory management has been defined in terms of an organization that aims at determining the range of qualities of materials and products, which should be stocked, and the regulation of the receipts and issues of materials. He further noted that inventory management must ensure that the business has the right quantity of goods in the right place and at the right time under inventory management, efforts should be made or placed at the right time, with the right quantity, with the right quality at the right place. Broadly Lysons (2002) defines inventory as raw materials, work in progress and finished good. Inventory management aim at providing both internal and external customers with the required service levels in terms of quality and order fill rate, ascertaining present and further arrangements for all types of inventory to avoid over stocking while avoiding bottlenecks in production and costs to a minimum by variety reductions, economic sizes and analysis of costs incurred in obtaining and carrying inventories. For effective management of inventories, it requires the co-operations of the various departments in the way the organization handles its inventories. The responsibility of managing work in progress and finished products may be with the material control department equally it could line some other section within the organization (Muhleman, 2000). According to Gupta (2001) inventory management is described as the process that involves fixing the minimum and maximum inventory levels, determining the size of the inventory to be carried at a given time and the issue price policy. 2. 2Techniques of Inventory Management in Organization According to Nixon (2008), inventory management techniques include; 2. 2. 1First In First Out (FIFO) This method often referred to as (FIFO) is based on assumption that the first inventory acquired is the first inventory sold or issued out. In otherwise each sale is made out of the oldest inventories in stock. The ending inventories there for consists of the most recent cost which may be adopted by any business regardless of whether or not the physical flow of merchandise actually corresponds to this assumption of selling the oldest units in stock. 2. 2. 2Last In Fast Out (LIFO) This method is based on the principle that materials entering store/production unit are the most recently purchased. This means materials issued to production are prized/issued using the most recent purchased price, the batch of goods purchased most recently are issued first. The closing stock is therefore valued at the oldest purchase price. 2. 2. 3Weighted Average According to the institute of management Accounting (London) weighted average cost is calculated by dividing total of materials in the sock from which the materials to priced or issued would be drown by the total quantity of materials in stock. When the average costing method is used, the cost figures determined for the ending inventories are influenced by the various price paid during the year. The price paid early at the year may carry as much weight in pricing the ending inventories as a price paid at the end of the year. If the price has been rising during the year, the average unite cost will be less than the current cost prevailing at the balance sheet date. 2. 2. The Re Order Level System (ROL)/ Fixed Order Point System The reorder level is the level at which a replenishment order should be placed in order that delivery is when the minimum level is reached. Orders for the same fixed quantity will be required whenever it becomes necessary to do so. The frequency with which orders are made changes according to the level of demand, ROL system has the following characteristic; a pre determined level is set for each item. When the stock level falls to the ROL, a replenishment order is issued. Organizations operating this system maintain stock records with calculated re order levels. The re order system has three control levels, the ROL which was already defined, the maximum stock level which a level above which stock should not normally rise and the minimum stock level which is a level below which sock should not be allowed to fall. It is also known as safety sock or buffer stock. Incase stock is to fall below this level, stoppage is likely to occur. 2. 2. 5The Periodic Review System/ Fixed Interval This system is sometimes called the constant cycle system. The stock will be reviewed at regular fixed intervals to determine whether more should be ordered. An order will be raised for the required quantity. The system as the following characteristics; stock levels of all parts are reviewed at fixed interval for example every 2 weeks, where necessary, a replenishment order is issued, the quantity of the replenishment order is not a previously calculated economic order quantity but is based up on the likely demand until the next review, the present stock level and lead time. The replenishment order quantity seeks to bring stock up to a pre determined level. 2. 2. 6The Economic Order Quantity Analysis (EOQ) EOQ is a model that is used to decide optimum order size of the sock which will minimize the costs of ordering and holding cost. It is a deterministic type of model which assumes that all parameters (factors) are known with certainty. It assumes ordering and holding costs are known with certainty. There is a spontaneous delivery (no time lag between ordering and receiving) of items. The rate of demand is known and the demand period is normally assumed to be one year. There is unknown constant price per unit and all other factors are held constant. 2. 2. 7The ABC Analysis This relates to the classification of materials in the store. Materials are classified according to their importance. Group A are crucial for organizational performance, if there were a shortage of such material, production shortage would occur, they represent 70% of investment in inventory. Group B may not be crucial and they may not disrupt production activities but still they are also important. They normally represent 20% of investment in the inventory. Group C are materials which may be necessary for a firms production activities but are not so important. They normally represent 10% of investment in inventory. 2. 2. 8Just In Time Technique Here items of very high value that are frequently used, it makes sense to attempt to keep low or possibly no inventory of these items and instead get frequent deliveries possibly on a daily basis. The objective is to avoid tying lots of money in stock (working capital). Organization will need to find extremely reliable suppliers of defect free product who are just in time oriented. Just in time is based on pull concept, where by suppliers wait for a signal from their customers before they deliver or replenish. According to the study carried out by AVSI in 2005 inventory management techniques being used at the moment especially in areas of storage, and supply to medical supplies in Anaka General Hospital is a mixture of techniques . Stock brought today may be mixed up with already existing stock and when giving out stock to the clients, it does not matter which stock comes first either the old stock or the new stock. 2. 3Principles of Good Inventory Management In the business world, not everyone follows good principles that aid in their success. However, the principles of inventory management cannot be ignored if the organization expects to maintain a quality business with a good reputation for always being able to assist a customer. Employing good principles is the best way to profit in any industry because it keeps the organization a float in a world. Principles maintain organizational quality and responsibility to a project and to aspects that are most important in the inventory management (Graham, 2000). 2. 3. 1Cleanliness and Organization This principle of inventory management is simple and easy to follow, if the organization simply makes it a point to do so. For example, one of the top priorities in inventory management is to maintain a clear organized store in which all items are properly stored and labeled. This is important for several reasons. Cleanliness is important for an organization, staff and products the store (Lee, 2001). The organized storage and labeling allows easy location and order pull of stock or any item in the warehouse without any difficulty in searching. 2. 3. 2The Principles of Stock Rotation If the organization employees good principles of inventory management it will be certain to rotate the stock, selling through order stock before delivering into new shipments. This will ensure that the organization always has fresh products and doesn’t lose money by having to write off old items (Gary, 2002). 2. 3. 3Tracking Keeping careful track of all the items in the warehouse is one of the best principles of inventory management. Obviously, one can benefit greatly by employing just a few basic principles of inventory management in the organization work place. The more the organization work towards running a tight ship, the better off the organization will be as managers and the more profitable your department in business will be. 2. Organizational Performance According to Stonner (2002) organizational performance is the measure of how effective and efficient an organization is and how well it achieves the appropriate objectives. It involves the assessment of achievements of organizational objectives and planning for the future change. That is it involves the identification of major issues and solutions relating to one or more areas such as organ izational strategy, human resource strategy, human resource policies, organizational structure design, staff skills mix and communication channel. Problems of this nature can significantly limit organizational performance and development (Deloitte, 2006). Armstrong (2000) defined organizational performance as a state of degree of how an organization is governed in relation to the organizational goals; its capacity to successfully implement set objectives in order for it to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. Organizational performance is therefore a process; it can be positive or negative. Negative organizational performance is a degree in which an organization deviates from its set goals and objectives during the implementation of the short term and long term goals. For organizational performance to be positively achieved, management should set short term and specific goals that can be feasible as well as able to guide long term goals. An organizational budget estimate should be tailored to meet its goals and objectives by identifying and removing obstacles during the implementation of the estimates. Pandey (2002) defined performance as the financial strength and weakness of a firm by properly establishing a link between the balance sheet and income statement. He further argued that performance entails effectiveness which refers to the firm’s ability to serve and produce what is required by the market at a particular time effectively, which refers to the firm’s ability to serve and produce what is required by the market at a particular time effectively, which refers to the firm’s ability to serve and produce what’s required by the market at a particular time effectively which means meeting the objectives of the lower possible cost with the highest benefit. Kotler (2002) stated that performance measures must focus attention on what makes identities and communicates the driver of success, support organizational learning and provide basis for assessment and rewards. He further lamented that it can be looked at in terms of competitive feasibility resource utilization and annotations. When seeking to improve the performance of an organization it is very helpful to regularly conduct assessments of current performance of the organization. Assessment might be planned, systematic and explicit (these often are the best kinds of assessments) or un planned SWOT analysis diagnosis models without recognizing or referring to them as such. Along with comparison of results to various best practices or industry standards (Pearce, 2000). The organization is used to an ongoing performance management for employees, for example setting goals, monitoring the employee’s achievement of those goals, sharing feedback with the employee, evaluating the employee performance, rewarding performance or firing the employees. Performance management applies to organizations too and includes recurring activities to establish organizational goals, monitor progress towards the goals and make adjustment to achieve those goals more effectively and efficiently. Those recurring activities are much of what leaders and managers inherently do in their organizations some do them far better than others. 2. 4. 1Indicators of Performance The key performance indicator is a measure of performance, such measures are commonly used to help an organization define and evaluate how successful it is typically in terms of making progress towards its long term organizational goals. The performance indicator may be monitored using the business intelligence techniques to assess the present state of the business and to assist in prescribing a course of action (Frank, 1998). The act of monitoring the performance indicators in real term is known as business activity monitoring. The key performance indicators are frequently used to value difficulties in measuring activities such as the benefits of leadership development, engagement service and satisfaction they are typically tied to an organization’s strategy using concepts or techniques such as balanced stored card (Quinn, 2000). The key performance indicators differ depending on the nature of the organization and the organization’s strategy. They help to evaluate the process of an organization towards its vision and long term goals especially towards difficulties in quantifying knowledge based goals. The performance indicators differ from business drivers and aims or goals. A school might consider the failure rate of its students as a key performance indicator which might help the school under its position in the education community where as a business might consider the percentage of income from customers. Therefore, the indicators of performance include; 2. 4. 2Social Responsibility These are values that guide people in organizations and corporate. Culture that embodies those values and values held by people outside the organization (Robert, 2000). He further says that social responsibility makes people buy a product from a company because of the company’s good reputation. Stonner, (2000), states that corporate culture can be a strong force for organizational performance. 2. 4. 3Strategic Cost Management According to Pearce (2000) modern businesses strategically manage their costs through identifying costs and drivers, developing appropriate process and strategies aimed at reducing or eliminating the costs so as to enhance business performance. 2. 4. 4Information Sharing Quinn (2000) said that improved decision making and performance efficiently is due to realistic informed and detailed information sharing. He further asserts that outcomes of the relationship and interactive feedback are used o make improvements. 2. 4. 5Flexibility Flexibility of an organization is yet another determinant of performance. This means ability to manage change in a business. The increased performance of any organization is reflected in its ability to make changes without and delay. This flexibility can take a form of development needs continuous update of information or improved technology. Therefore, lack of flexibility in an organization’s activities will reflect reduced profits. 2. Relationship between Inventory Management and Performance It was observed that inventory management in organizations has a positive significant relationship with performances whereby when all the materials and inventories are properly managed; they lead to increased levels of efficiency and effectiveness that will help indecision making from the organization. According to a study conducted about inventory management by Karamagi (2004), on bank of Uganda, with the introduction of computerized system the overall management of stock has improved with regards to monitoring, reconciliation and reordering and requisition thus performance. Accordingly, inventory management has helped in tracking record process so that stocks are available all the time so that there are no stock outs and for emergency purposes. Receipts and issues are posted directly and automatically on to the system other than stock cards. Akers and Porter (2001) included that the use of inventory management at any level of an organization can have implications for competitive advantage. At the highest echelons of an organization, the inventory management is crucial to successful strategic planning. Duff (2001) and Mitskavick (2000) also reported that at the operational level, availability of inventory can result in increased organizational efficiencies such as increased sales, decreased inventory, increased customer service, shortened production lead times and lowered labour costs. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3. 0Introduction This chapter discusses the research design, area of the study, target population and methods to be used by researcher to gather information, study population, sampling size and procedures, data collection tools, data analysis and limitations of the study. 3. 1Research Design A research design is a plan to carry out a research project/ it is a pattern the research is going to follow/it is the overall plan or strategy for conducting the research. Oso and Onen, 2005 pg 69). For this research purpose, qualitative, quantitative and descriptive research designs will be used. The rationale for selection of the designs above is that case study uses smaller samples for in-depth analysis other than covering the entire population; the design is also multi model, concrete and contextual in nature. 3. 2Area of study This research is going to be carried out in Anaka General Hospital, Nwoya district. . 3Target population The study will target the following category of people: – medical superintendant, doctors, store keepers and other employees. They are chosen because of their day today mandate and interface with inventory management issues and Performance in Anaka General Hospital 3. 4Population and Sample Size Aggarwal (1988:14) stated that the term population in research refers to a universe of interest to the study. A population is the group to which a researcher would like the results of a study to be generalisable and make reference to a specific situation or context. The study will include medical superintendant, doctors, store keepers, District Health Officer, nurses, other employees and selected patients and other employees. A number of 54 respondents will be expected to be given the questionnaires and or interviewed. The medical superintendant, doctors, storekeepers, employees and patients will be chosen because they are the people expected to be having enough experience as partners to the field of inventory management in Anaka General Hospital Table 1: 3 Showing the sample sizes S/NO| RESSPONDENTS| NUMBER| 1| Medical superintendent| 1| 2| Doctors| 2| 3| District Health officer| 1| | Store keeper| 2| 5| Nurses| 12| 6| Other employees(Dentist, Pharmacy, Administrator, Record Assistant, Laboratory Assistant, Darkroom Attendant)| 24| 7| Patient| 12| | TOTAL| 54| Sources: Source: Researchers’ proposed sample size 3. 4. 1Procedures of Data Collection This will be based on purposive sampling; According to Shaughnessy and Zechmeister (1997:139 ) purposive sampling is where the investigator selects individuals to be included in the sample on the basis of their special characteristics. This method shall be used by the researcher to obtain respondents who have some knowledge on the subject matter. Purposive sampling design will be used to choose the area in which the study will be conducted because of the proximity to the researcher in views of time and fund constraints. The study will purposely be based at Anaka medical stores serving in this case as service provider and the community as patients/consumers. 3. 4. 2Sample Technique The researcher will employ systematic random sampling to carry out the study. Systematic random sampling will be used to select the category of respondents to be Included in the sample. The purpose of using this technique is to avoid being bias in the Selection of respondents. Systematic random samplings requires establishing the number from the population List in the camp then later identify every nth member in the population from the Randomized list of the population. This technique will group the population sampled into Separate identical subjects with equal chances that share similar or same characteristics to Ensure equitable representation of the population in the sample. This technique is Preferred because it selects without bias. It also saves time and Money. 3. 5 Data Sources The data source shall compromise of the following; 3. 5. Primary Data The researcher shall collect fresh data and for the first time which will be original in nature from Anaka General Hospital stores and will directly be obtained from the filled records. 3. 5. 2Secondary Data The researcher will review literature which contains the data that has been collected by some other people but relevant to the researcher’s topic of the study for instance from magazines, journal s, text books and internet sources. 3. 6Data Collection methods Data from the field will be obtained by use of combination of the following data collection methods. The researcher will use questionnaires, interview and document analysis as the main tool for collecting data. The selection of this tool will be guided by the nature of data to be collected. 3. 6. 1Questionnaires Questionnaires will be used since the research is mainly with variables that cannot be directly observed such as views, opinions, perceptions and feelings of the respondents. Such information is best collected through questionnaires. The sample size comprise of (54) Respondents and given the time constraints, questionnaires is the ideal tool for collecting data. The researcher intends to use categorized instrument that is both open and closed questions and optional responses. This will enable the researcher to balance between quality and quantity of data. It will also simplify data analysis and coming out with clear report on the study. 3. 6. 2Observation guide This will be employed by the researcher to collect information from Anaka General Hospital by observing how the drugs are issued to the respective users and how they are stocked in the stores. 3. 6. 3Interview guide Data shall be collected using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Colin (1993:47) stated that â€Å"a guide can be directed on a given set of predetermined questions†. The researcher used an in-depth interview guide to gather information about the study. The in-depth interview approach is relevant because of the sensitivity of the issues being studied which required in-depth exploration. This will be conducted by the researcher to probe for more information in a face to face discussion with the Anaka General Hospital management. This will target the doctors and storekeepers at the Hospital 3. 7 Data Processing and Analysis 3. 7. 1Data Analysis and Management Data analysis is defined as â€Å"a process of inspecting data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making†. Data shall be obtained from detailed field notes and written data collected through questionnaires. The analysis shall involve the organization of data into themes by searching for patterns emerging from data collected. The information from the questionnaires shall be written and presented by researcher as provided by the respondents. This data shall be used by the researcher to provide a descriptive analysis of the respondents’ understanding of store management. The findings will later be analyzed using Micro soft Excel to present the data in term of percentages using pie-charts and bar graph. This will be useful in displaying pattern in the collected data, and these patterns were used to make generalization on the basis of recommendation made. 3. 8Ethical Considerations The research topic was first approved by faculty of Business and Development Studies of Gulu University research committee . The researcher will then obtain a letter of introduction from Gulu University which will be presented to the District Health Officer Nwoya District and Medical superintendent of Anaka General Hospital. All respondents will be informed about the purpose of the study, their freedom to participant, and also assured of confidentiality, the researcher also promise to provide copies of his finding to the University and the MS, DHO of Anaka General Hospital 3. 9Limitation of the Study The following are the anticipated limitations; Some respondents may intend to withhold information for fear of exposing their incompetence. This will be overcomed by, assuring them of confidentiality of the information that they also stand to benefit if implementation of the recommendation of the study are taken. There may be inadequate inventory control record for review by the researcher, more so because the Hospital does not even used electronic databases. To bridge the gap, interview and discussion will be used to identify and explain the missing or inaccurate data respectively. Financial constraint may also disturb the researcher since he is self-sponsored and to reduce the cost, the researcher will undertake some activities such as typing, binding the research proposal, the questionnaires, the interview schedules. Time is a limitation in that the frame for submitting the search proposal is short considering the size of departments and the distance of Anaka General Hospital its 56KM from Gulu town and some respondents may delay completing of questionnaires due to their personal commitment and these may slow down the compilation of data. To prevent these, the researcher will engage a research assistant to speed up data collection. REFERENCE Aggarwal, Y. P. (1988). Better Sampling: Concepts, Techniques, Evaluation. Sterling Publishers Private Limited, India. Board of survey report, Nwoya district local government 2011Duff (2000) Automated Accounting in modern times, Ms Graw Hill, inventory control Frank Gamble, Strickland and Thompson (2007) Environmental impacts, focus on improving landscape performance Akers and Porter (2001), the relationship between GSCM practice and performance, JIT approach to inventory management | Gilbert et al (2000), from computing journal of introduction system management, Vol 34, No 25, PP 23-28 Graham et al (2006), financial management 2nd edition, Viskas publishing house put limited Gray John (2000), Organizational behavior 4th edition, Prentince Hall, Great Britain Karamagi. H. 2004), Inventory management and profitability in business organization Kenneth Lysons (2000) purchasing and supply chain management, 5th edition, person Education: London Kotler. P. (2002), Principle of marketing, 7th edition, Pearson London Muhleman (2000), production and operations management 2nd edition, MC Graw Hill New York Oso and Onen 2005, a guide in writing research proposal and report Pandy. I. M, (2003), financial management, 8th edition, MC Graw Hill, Great Britain Ray wild (2002), implementing effective management: Inc Oracle Corporations (2002), www. oracle. com Richard Mcclelan (2009) inventory management system Shaughnessy, J. J and Zechmeister, E. B (1997). Research Methods in Psychology, 4th Edition. The McGraw – Hill Companies, Inc. United States of America Stonner et al (2003), Principle and practice of management, 8th edition White 1997, Optimization Engine for Inventory Control†, white paper from Golden Embryo †¦ [ web page], Bogazici University 1997 www. freepatentsonline. com APPENDICES APENDIX 1: WORK PLAN 2012 PHASE/ACTIVITY| Jan| Feb| Mar| Apr| May| Jun| Jul| Responsible person| Developing synthesis | | | | | | | | Researcher and supervisor| Developing a proposal| | | | | | | | Researcher and supervisor| Developing and piloting of instrument| | | | | | | | Researcher and supervisor| Data collection| | | | | | | | Researcher | Data organization, analysis and interpretation| | | | | | | | Researcher and supervisor| Typing, editing/report submission| | | | | | | | Researcher| APENDIX 2: BUDGET ESTIMATES S/NO| ITEMS| DESCRIPTION| PRICE| ESTIMATED AMOUNT| | Stationeries| | | | | Rim of papers| 2| 20,000| 40,000| | Pens| 10| 500| 5,000| | Flask disk| 1| 70,000| 70,000| | Typing and Printing| | | 200,000| | Binding| | | 60,000| | PERSONNEL| | | | | Research Assistant| 1| | 50,000| | Communication| | | 60,000| | Meals| | | 80,000| | TOTAL| | | 565,000| APPENDIX 3: QUESTIONAIRE INSTRUMENTS Dear Respondent I am Ocen Alfred Ayella a third year student of Business Administration of Gulu University. Currently I am undertaking a research study about â€Å"Inventory management and organizational performance†, A case of Anaka General Hospital. The purpose of the study is to enable me to obtain a Bachelor of Business Administration Degree from Gulu University. The information provided shall not only be for academic purposes but also to improve on the services delivery in success of inventory management and organizational performance in Anaka General Hospital Nwoya district. The information that you will give will be strictly confidential Instruction * Tick where options are given * Fill in the space provided * Be as objective as possible SECTION A: Demographic Characteristic 1. Name (optional) †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2. What is your gender? Male Female 3. In which age bracket do you fall? Below 18 years 20-29 years 30-39 years above 40 years 4. Marital status? Single Married Divorced SeparatedWidowed 5. Highest level of education attained? Non O and A level Certificate Diploma Degree Postgraduate Master PHD 6. Current job position held at Anaka General Hospital? Medical superintendentDoctorDistrict Health officer Store keeper A NurseLaboratory AssistantPatientOther specify †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 7. How long have you been in this position? Below 2 years 3 years and above 5 years and above SECTION B: Techniques of inventory management in Anaka General Hospital? 8. What kind of inventory management do you have in the Hospital? Fixing minimum levels Maximum inventory levels Determine size of inventory All the above 9. Which techniques do you use in managing inventory? Stock rotation, just in time Last in first out (LIFO) First in First out (FIFO) Economic order quantity Weighted averages The periodic review system All the above 10. Is just in time techniques more important as pertain to inventory management? Yes No If yes, state your opinion how is it important? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 11. The principle of good inventory management include (Tick all that apply) Cleanliness of the organization The principle of stock rotation Tracking All the above 12. What measures are used to improved inventory management in Anaka General Hospital? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 13. The strategy that helps the Hospital to achieve the high level of inventory management? You are required to show the extent to which your agree or disagree (Please tick (v) most appropriate of; strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (S. D) | Statement | S. A| A. | NS| D | SD| 1. Inventory managers are responsible for receiving inventory when they arrive| | | | | | 2. | The Hospital always verifies stock received against delivery orders| | | | | | 3. | Does the Hospital order for inventory monthly| | | | | | 4. | Does the Hospital order for inventory quarterly| | | | | | 5. | Does the Hospital carried out stock taking on monthly basis | | | | | | 6. | Does the Hospital carried out stock taking on quarterly basis| | | | | | 8. | All relevant employees participate in Inventory management| | | | | | SECTION C: Indicator of the organizational performance 14. Organizational performance is measured by efficiency and effectiveness of resources to achieve stated objectives Yes No 15. Organizational performance improvement includes assessment which is inform of Planned Systematic Explicit All the above 16. What are the indicators of organizational performance? Social responsibility Information sharing Flexibility Flexibility Strategic cost management Strategic cost management All the above 17. Organization performance is measured by both financial and non financial performance a) State the financial organizational performance i. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ ii. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ iii. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ iv. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ b) Non financial organizational performance i. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ ii. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ iii. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚ ¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ SECTION D: The relationship between inventory management and organizational performance You are required to show the extent to which your agree or disagree (Please tick (v) most appropriate of; strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (S. D) STATEMENT| SA| A| NS| SD| D| There is a direct relationship between inventory management and organizational performance| | | | | | Carrying out inventory management reduces costs related with over and under stocking| | | | | Without proper inventory management, The organization can’t meet her customers needs in time| | | | | | There is high service delivery attained as a result of inventory management| | | | | | The organization has large assets and capital as a result of proper inventory management| | | | | | The organizations services are reliable and in good condition| | | | | | There are ranges of services delivery option for Patient when they come | | | | | | Th e organization is able to adjust the amount of products in the store and are able to reschedule priorities demand | | | | | | Your organization is able to obtain out of stock products in time. | | | | | | SECTION E: Evaluation of the factors that affects the performance of Anaka General Hospital You are requested to state the extent to which you agree or disagree (Please tick the most appropriate of; Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Disagree (D) and Strongly Disagree (S. D) | Statement | S. A| A. | NS| D | SD| 1. | There is inspection of goods in your organization in order to determine defective goods. | | | | | | 2. | There is expire of drugs when kept for a long time| | | | | | 3. | There is inadequate skills and knowledge of inventory planning and management in Anaka General Hospital| | | | | | 4. | There is high rate of theft of inventories In your organization| | | | | | 5. | There are qualified personnel who are responsible for managing inventories. | | | | | | Thanks you for your response and time How to cite Inventory Management on Performance, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Evolution of polar bear lamarck and darwins theroy free essay sample

Polar bears have lived in the arctic for many years. Their bodies have adapted and developed in order for their survival in the polar region. Polar bears are able to live in the deep freeze for many reasons. They have thick fur that keeps in their body heat. They have small ears and a small tail which means they lose less heat. Their paws are so big that they act like snowshoes, and the pads on their feet have an anti-slip skin, which would be similar to sandpaper. For thousands of years polar bears have lived a great life in the North. The Inuit (a tribe) people have lived with them, hunting them occasionally for food or clothing. There was never any fear that the Inuit would over hunt the polar bears because it was dangerous and the weapons available to them were creative. In more recent times, the polar bears have been sought out by hunters, just not the Inuit who live in the North. They have been over hunted by people looking for the big trophy. Eventually in the 1970s the over hunting was brought under control by the International Agreement on the conservation of polar bears and their habitat. Polar bear number once again began to grow because of this. Though there are many theories surrounding evolution, the two stand outstanding assumptions applying to the change from Brown Bear to Polar Bear are Lamarck’s theory of Use and Disuse, and Darwin’s theory of Natural Selection. The intention of this paper is to compare this theory and decide the most appropriate in relation this event. Charles Darwin simply brought something new to the old philosophy a plausible mechanism called natural selection. Natural selection acts to preserve and accumulate minor advantageous genetic mutations. Suppose a member of a species developed a functional advantage (it grew wings and learned to fly). Its offspring would inherit that advantage and pass it on to their offspring. The inferior (disadvantaged) members of the same species would gradually die out, leaving only the superior (advantaged) members of the species. Natural selection is the preservation of a functional advantage that enables a species to compete better in the wild. Natural selection is the naturalistic equivalent to domestic breeding. Over the centuries, human breeders have produced dramatic changes in domestic animal populations by selecting individuals to breed. Breeders eliminate undesirable traits gradually over time. Similarly, natural selection eliminates inferior species gradually over time. According to Lamarck’s theory, features can be strengthened or cleared of completely through use or disuse over generations. For example, Jean Baptise Lamarck believed that the giraffes long neck was an acquired characteristic. After a lifetime of straining to reach up to eat leaves, a giraffe’s neck would elongate. Baptise thought that the offspring of these giraffes would then be born with longer necks. Lamarck’s theory has widely been disproved, especially with the discovery of heredity genetics. If the theory were correct, a man who works hard to get large muscles, would father naturally strong children. Though the physical side of the idea may be dismissed, many researchers are studying whether behavioural traits can be passed down from a parent to their young. It is thought that the polar bear evolved from the brown bear. It was likely that 100,000 to 250,000 years ago brown bears (Ursus arctos) became parted by glaciers. Most of the bears probably died on the ice. However some didn’t die because they survived due to the fact that organisms vary (Gould, 1977). This means that every litter of grizzlies has different kinds of coat thickness to keep them warm and coat colour so that they would suit their environment better, which gives them a small benefit to survive compared to some cubs of each litter. Successful individuals in each litter of grizzles repeated this simple process over and over again. This gave a rapid series of evolutionary changes (driven, most likely, by the small population, and intense selection pressure) in order to survive. Note that these new variants were not necessarily better in any exact way, or on any complete bear scale of perfection. They were simply more in keeping with their new environment than their immediate ancestors or their more unfortunate siblings. Today, polar bears are adapted to their harsh northern environment. Hecht (in Chaline, 1983) describes polar bear evolution: the first polar bear, Ursus maritimus tyrannus, was essentially a brown bear subspecies, with brown bear dimensions and brown bear teeth. So if you look at the evolution of the brown bear into a polar specifically skin and fur colour, skull and ears shapes and digestions of seal fat and the theories of Darwin and Lamarck. Darwin using â€Å"natural selection† changing what the polar bear needs to change to let them adopt and survive and Lamarck using the theory of â€Å"use and disuse if you don’t use it you’ll lose it basically. Then look at all the references and evidence and would have to say that Darwin’s theory was the one that made the most sense because you could actually see the polar bear evolving from the brown bear. The polar bear skin became thicker and keeps them warm. Also the polar bears fur colour changed to white so they suited their environments. Another change was the polar bear skull and ear this changed so they could maintain their body temperature. So I am stating that based on evidence that Darwin’s theory will win the scientific debate about the process of evolution of the polar bears from brown bears Chaline, J. 1983. Modalites, Rythmes, Mecanismes de LEvolution Biologique: Gradualisme phyletique ou equilibres ponctues? Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. [Collection of symposium papers, most in French with English abstracts provided some in English. ] †¢ Kurten, B. 1964. The evolution of the polar bear, Ursus maritimus (Phipps). Acta Zoologica Fennica 108:1-26. †¢ GOULD, S. J. (1977). Ever Since Darwin. New York: W. W. Norton. †¢ Kurten, B. 1968. Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. Aldine, Chicago. †¢ Kurten, B. 1976. The Cave Bear Stor

Thursday, April 2, 2020

Spontaneous Generation Essay Example For Students

Spontaneous Generation Essay From the time of the Ancient Romans, through the Middle Ages, and until the late nineteenth century, it was generally accepted that life arose spontaneously from non-living matter. Such spontaneous generation appeared to occur primarily in decaying matter. For example, a seventeenth century idea for the spontaneous generation of mice required placing sweaty underwear and husks of wheat in an open-mouthed jar. Then, waiting for about 21 days, during which time it was said that the sweat from the underwear would penetrate the husks of wheat, changing them into mice. Although that idea may seem ridiculous today, that and other ideas like it were believed and accepted during that time, which was not too long ago. We will write a custom essay on Spontaneous Generation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The first serious attack on the idea of spontaneous generation was made in 1668 by Francesco Redi, an Italian physician and poet. At that time, it was thought that maggots arose spontaneously in rotting meat. Redi believed that maggots developed from eggs laid by flies after observing that they had different developmental stages.. To test his hypothesis, he set out meat in a variety of flasks, some open to the air, some sealed completely, and others covered with gauze. As he had expected, maggots appeared only in the open flasks in which the flies could reach the meat and lay their eggs. This was one of the first examples of an experiment in which controls are used. In spite of his well-executed experiment, the belief in spontaneous generation remained strong, and even Redi continued to believe it occurred under some circumstances. The invention of the microscope encouraged this silly belief. Microscopes revealed a whole new world of organisms that appeared to arise spontaneously. It was quickly learned that to create animalcules, as the organisms were called, you needed only to place hay in water and wait a few days before examining your new creations under the microscope. The debate over spontaneous generation continued for centuries. In 1745, John Needham, an English clergyman, proposed what he considered the definitive experiment. Everyone knew that boiling killed microorganisms, so he proposed to test whether or not microorganisms appeared spontaneously after boiling. He boiled chicken broth, put it into a flask, sealed it, and waited sure enough, microorganisms grew. Needham claimed victory for spontaneous generation. An Italian priest, Lazzaro Spallanzani, was not convinced, and he suggested that perhaps the microorganisms had entered the broth from the air after the broth was boiled, but before it was sealed. To test his theory, he modified Needhams experiment he placed the chicken broth in a flask, sealed the flask, drew off the air to create a vacuum, then boiled the broth. No microorganisms grew. Believers of spontaneous generation argued that Spallanzani had only proven that spontaneous generation could not occur without air. The theory of spontaneous generation was finally laid to rest in 1859 by the young French chemist, Louis Pasteur. The French Academy of Sciences sponsored a contest for the best experiment either proving or disproving spontaneous generation. Pasteurs winning experiment was a variation of the methods of Needham and Spallanzani. He boiled meat broth in a flask, heated the neck of the flask in a flame until it became bendable, and bent it into the shape of an S. Air could enter the flask, but airborne microorganisms could not they would settle by gravity in the neck. As Pasteur had expected, no microorganisms grew. When Pasteur tilted the flask so that the broth reached the lowest point in the neck, where any airborne particles would have settled, the broth rapidly became cloudy with life. Pasteur had both refuted the theory of spontaneous generation and convincingly demonstrated that microorganisms are everywhere, even in the air!!! And also because of Pasteurs success, the theory of biogenesis came about that said that living organisms come only from other living organisms. .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 , .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .postImageUrl , .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 , .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1:hover , .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1:visited , .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1:active { border:0!importa nt; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1:active , .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .ctaButton { b ackground-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left: 18px; top: 0; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1 .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1cd8be1c7a20d3edcd70fd4ae244a4f1:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Ocean Discovery Teaches Animal Cruelty Essay

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Chain gangs essays

Chain gangs essays Chain gangs have been around for a longtime, and are still within our prison systems today. Chain gangs are groups of prisoners set to work for the city or state as a punishment during their stay in prison, with jobs such as trash cleanup, or, back when chain gangs were first invented, building train tracks, and every other job in between. The name chain gang comes from the chaining of the prisoners, to reduce the chance of escape, while they were working outside of the prison walls. Employees of the prisons, called leasees, were in charge of the inmates, often armed with a weapon of some kind in case of a retreat attempt, or an attempt of the prisoners to brawl with the guards. The prisoners living arrangements were often unsanitary, crowded, and poorly constructed. These bad conditions of living often gave people a misinterpreted view of chain gangs. The first chain gangs began in England and the northern part of the United States during the eighteenth century. Even though chain gangs were legal in almost every state, the South seemed to be the only region using them. Some reasons for this include the bad climate of the North and the publics thoughts against chain gangs. Another reason why we see the South as the source of chain gangs is because it was the region that needed them the most. The South used chain gangs because after the Civil War there was a labor shortage. The labor shortage and an escalation in crime caused the South to begin leasing out convict labor. That is why most of the states in the South had convict labor by 1875. The most common workers of the chain gang were county inmates who worked on the roads. A large amount of repairs was needed to mend the roads that were destroyed during the war. Many convicts were also leased out to farms in the South to replace the slaves who were freed because of the Civil Wa r. Nobody cared that chain gangs were humiliating and de...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Peer Journals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Peer Journals - Essay Example To begin with, one of the strategies that teachers can play in enhancing in such a case is giving students time to practice on their own before the real peer journals begin. In this case, the instructors ought to show the class how to get in groups and then provide his/her feedback to the group. Another excellent strategy is the teaching of students on how to keep track of other students’ right answer. From this strategy, students learn from each other fast enough, which enhance continuity and increased learning (DuPaul 2). In addition to these strategies, another strategy that can greatly influence learning in such a case is making learning fun to students. This can be done using various helpful strategies such as rewards, encouragement and giving of points among many other methods. While doing all these things, the instructor ought to act as a trainer, a demonstrator, an organizer and most of all, a model. They also ought to play the role of commentators and checkers for max imum outcome (Yang 75). In conclusion, peer reviewed journals are among the best method of teaching in almost any group. In order to enhance learning and to ensure maximum outcomes, strategies like making of the method enjoyable and playing the right role should be adopted. With such methods, fast learning and positive outcomes are possible. DuPaul, G.J. Peer tutoring procedures in general education classrooms. In A.S. Canter & S.A. Carroll (Eds.), Helping children at home and school: Handouts from your school psychologist. National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda: MD.