Thursday, December 26, 2019
For the Resistance workers of France, gender had a defining impact on the roles and jobs open to women where they were both utilized and supported. They played a key role in the Resistance of Vichy France from a scattering of leadership roles, to support roles, to secretarial and liaison work. These women were galvanized and motivated for different reasons: for the political, to moral, to patriotic or for the desire to do something. Even women beyond the network of the official groups of Resistance worked to shelter, protect and support Allies, their communities and Resistance efforts. Thousands of Women during the war, in the Resistance or not, followed and manipulated the stereotypes and limitations of women in the era to better service their goals. However these womanly standards curbed which positions they could fill and what respect they received. In prewar France, the stereotypical women were the homemakers of the family. Though many were formally educated, few profess ional jobs were open to them. After the FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and morale collapse in the first months of World War II, the government propaganda proclaimed a new form of masculinity. A society built on a foundation of family, gender and biological distinct roles with a male dominated hierarchy. The antithesis of male ideal being a women who was submissive, ignorant and the home maker. These feminine ideals and values funneled many women to a support or secondary role in the Resistance. For toShow MoreRelatedTo what extent did the French Resistance assist in the allies liberation of France?888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe French Resistance (La RÃ ©sistance franÃ §aise) was a collaboration of individual movements against the German occupation of France and the Vichy regime that complied with the Nazis during World War II. Starting in 1940 and ending with the liberation of France, French people from all ends of the economic and political spectrum united in different RÃ ©sistanc e groups to perform guerilla attacks, run underground newspapers, provide intelligence to and from the allies, and manage escape networks to alliedRead Moreimpact of french imperialism on indochina1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescountry, France pursed to increase its power, wealth and influence by gaining authority over other parts in the world. South America and Africa were among the countries the French Empire had owned in addition to Indochina who lost its independence after the war against China, which lasted from 1884-1885. Indochina was a main asset to France, especially in the field of economics and social power between other countries such as China and Japan. Despite the advantage Indochina gave to France, the controlRead MoreThe Ideology And The Policies Adopted By Stalin906 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesup to the two menaces of, which he barely knew the names Marxism and Jews, but still no evidence of being raging anti-Semite before 1914. In 1920 he said for the first time in print Ã¢â¬Å"Jews are to be exterminated.Ã¢â¬ After the foundation of the German Workers Party of 1919, which became the Nazis. During the World War II 25 million people died in WWII. A lot of partisans lost their lives picking off German soldiers in the case of Poland. Warsaw ghetto rose and crashed with 12,000 deaths and with thousandsRead MoreThe Importance Of Antibiotic Resistance998 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction Antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats to global health, food security and development today, it occurs naturally, but the pace of its process speeds up its abuse when given to humans and animals and it can harm anyone regardless of age and country of residence (Laxminarayan, et al.2013). According to World Health Organization (WHO), there are 700,000 people death every year because of antibiotic resistance (WHO,2016). A study by the Public Health Foundation in EnglandRead MoreEuropean Imperialism in Late 19th Century Africa1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdevelop their native land. Some African leaders and societies responded to European occupation by gathering resistance groups in attempt to fight off foreign imperialists. How did European Imperialism begin? There are many factors that played an important role in the process of taking over Africa for various European countries. Between 1870-1890 European powers such as Great Britain, France, Germany, and Portugal where major powers exploring for more natural recourses, and new markets in their AfricanRead MoreThe Causes Of Decolonization After World War II979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexample of an African country that was decolonized is Algeria, which was invaded by France. The main objective of French was for their economic gain and to compete with the British Empire (Lec, 11/20). The French wanted to become known as the most powerful nation of Europe. Moreover, France treated Algeria as an extension of France, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Long live the Republic! Long live Algeria and long live FranceÃ¢â¬â¢ (257). France controlled the lives of Algerians by making them suffer and live up to their rules. AlthoughRead MoreDiscussing the Stability of the Weimar Republic Essay examples582 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFrench did not believe this and so they invaded the Ruhr, which was the richest industrial area in Germany. The Germans responded to the invasion by passive resistance, this lead to hyper-inflation. Hyper-inflation meant that the government kept printing more money in order to pay the workers for the passive resistance. This soon got out of hand and money soon be came incredibly worthless. This made Weimar Republic unstable as their money was worthless, the public were loosingRead MoreWomen s Rights During The French Revolution1041 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesestates system was abolished, the class system remained, and there continued to be huge wealth disparity in France. As the October Days in the same year highlighted, urban workers continued to struggle to afford bread. The Declaration only guaranteed equality of rights. Although this is significant, the Declaration was by no means so revolutionary that it eliminated inequality and oppression in France. This is arguably best exemplified by examining womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. The Declaration makes little progressRead MoreThe Most Effective Resistance Against Nazis And The Holocaust?1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2016 Which Countries or Groups Showed the Most Effective Resistance Against Nazis and the Holocaust? Many events in the world have been documented in our history books, but sometimes forgotten. However, the reminisce of events that took place during the Holocaust are the ones that are never forgotten. Neither should the groups and countries that showed resistance towards Hitler. Because of the antipathy towards Hitler s regime, resistance towards NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s and the Holocaust was a combined effort fromRead MoreMulticulturalism And Its Impact On Society1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEuropean countries such as Britain and France. These policies required immigrants to enroll themselves in language school at their own expense. Ironically, at the time, the Netherlands was known as an immigration and multiculturalist country. For those Ã¢â¬ËcolouredÃ¢â¬â¢ who migrated to these European countries lived in poor neighborhoods due to discrimination of their landlords and public authorities through employment opportunities in dangerous jobs that allowed white workers to create a booming economy. Britain
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Full Title: Benefits of Homeschooling Erica Brown ENG122: English Composition II Instructor Patti Youngs February 6, 2017 Benefits of Homeschooling I. Introduction A. Thesis statement: Homeschooling has become an effective alternative to education that accommodate the childÃ¢â¬â¢s unique learning style and provides a healthier and safer learning environment. II. Body Paragraph Many parents homeschool their children because they can provide a healthier learning environment than a public-school system. The home environment lacks drugs, peer-influence, bullying, and school shootings. Parents spend more time interacting with their children one-on-one which, is nowhere close to the large teacher/student ratio within the public schools. 1.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A. Claim: More control over what their child is being taught. 1. Evidence: Per Farris, the moral obligation to protect one s child from such indoctrination is protected by a constitutional right. Parents have the constitutional right to obey the dictates of God concerning education of their children. 2. Evidence: The National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) states that most families who homeschool include their concern about school environment, and an interest in ethical and spiritual education as their reason for homeschooling. Per the source, some said that they wanted to be able to teach their children outside of the basic curriculum. VI. Body Paragraph Many educators feel that homeschooled children donÃ¢â¬â¢t interacted with children their age. In fact, many homeschool parents connect with other homeschool parents to establish homeschooling communities where one parent teaches multiple families on one day and another parent teaches on another day. However, the most common argument against homeschooling has been that homeschool students will be socially delayed due to the failure to socialize with other students. A. Claim: Homeschooling parent will be supported by their peers and their community. 1. Evidence: Virtual schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s education programs provide face-to-face opportunities for their students, such as conferences and local field trips. The socialization argument has lost momentum
Monday, December 9, 2019
Simply truthful Essay Theyre not your husband is a frank example of how other peoples views are of no importance to Carver. When Bill and Arlene totally invade the privacy of someone elses life, no mention is ever made of whether what they are doing is of right or wrong. We are given a simple description of what is going on- almost like a report, and we are never given a suggestion of Carvers views on the situation. He is simply describing real life, giving no indication of whether things like distrust, infidelity and anger are actually wrong. He lets the readers decide for themselves, as in Tell the Women Were Going- when Jerry hits the two girls with he rock, what he has done is blatantly wrong, but still no indication is given that it is. The most it ever comes to is: Jerry used the same rock on both girls. First on the girl called Sharon and then on the one that was supposed to be Bills. There is a slightly depressing tone, but I think only because the reader interprets it in that way. Carver cleverly uses his language to create a depressing and shocking image because the way he describes it is so matter-of-fact that what is about to happen is completely unpredictable, and still there is no actual proof that he has said that this is wrong. In Jerry and Molly and Sam the reader is naturally shocked when Al abandons the dog, giving the impression that Carver is pessimistic, but when you take a closer look, you realise that still he is giving us no impression of what is right. He never tells the reader what to believe or gives his own opinion on the treatment of the dog. It is plain report of human happenings and feelings. Raymond Carver has the ability to tap into peoples minds and emotions. Whether these emotions are classed as right or wrong has no significance to him- he only shows the world as it is- unglamorous, mundane, and full of problems. His view on life is not pessimistic, but simply truthful. It isnt true that he doesnt care about grief and emotion; he just wants to show it to the world instead of hiding it away and pretending it doesnt exist. This insight into peoples minds helps us to understand the way people behave instead of dismissing them as strange or mad. Lemonade is an example of the way someone can be labeled for going through a difficult and keeping up to the standards of the self-conscious public. It is an example of just how quick people are to judge and that they can actually be quite spiteful instead of helping people through difficult periods. Jim Sears cannot seem to bring himself out of a depression he has been going through since his son died. The opening scene is a frank description of how people are judged on face value. Jim Sears didnt look like a man whod lose his only child to the high waters. It helps to understand that these people need helping rather than shoving away.
Monday, December 2, 2019
An in-depth discussion of Internet crimes, how the criminals access the victims information and what can be done for personal protection on the Internet. This paper offers an extensive study into the phenomenon of Internet crimes such as identity and credit card theft, stalking and harassment. The paper examines the new inventions being made and the new laws being passed. However, criminals think of scams just as fast or faster than what inventions for personal protection can be enforced. It shows how in the twenty first century, at least one Internet active computer in each household is almost a necessity, which makes everyone a possible victim. The Internet has allowed criminals into our homes and bank accounts. This paper examines legislation and preventative measures being explored daily. Table of Contents Defining Problems. Identity Theft Web Sites that make Identity Theft Easier Identity Theft from Public Records Hackers Other ways to Access Personal Information Not only Financial Theft Solving the Problem What Authorities are doing about Cyber Crime How thorough are Investigations? Limitations of the Authorities Can Authorities be Trusted? Undocumented Sources Why Authorities Cannot Keep Up with Internet Crimes Law Enforcement Officials Providing Inside Information to Stalkers Legal Drivers License in Different Names Employment Applications Reveal Information Impersonating Officers Conclusion Is there anything that one can do to protect his or her self from becoming the next victim of cyber crime? Not completely. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Security and the Internet or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Usually criminals have superb, and creative imaginations. Internet criminals think of new ways to steal identities and commit other cyber crimes, faster than the law officials abiding by the rules can figure out how to enforce the law, or make new laws to prevent crimes. Identity theft is one of the most popular and growing crimes on the Internet today. According to the article, Could Someone Steal Your Identity, Identity theft is not a new crime, but the use of the Internet has made it easier than ever for criminals to obtain personal information, and harder for authorities to track them down (Barrett, 2002). With new technology such as the Internet, communication is faster and easier than ever before. Mail is delivered within seconds instead of days. Business arrangements and contracts are closed within minutes. Shopping, getting directions, making plans for the evening and even dating and meeting people are easier because of the Internet. Nearly everybody has a computer in their home, most involving DSL connections or higher. Unfortunately, not everyone who uses Internet services have only good intentions. Many people use the technology for financial theft, use another persons identity to apply for employment and open credit card accounts, and stalking individuals which can lead into crimes which violates the victims personal safety.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The Low Budget Airline Jetstar Asia Airways Tourism Essay Essays The Low Budget Airline Jetstar Asia Airways Tourism Essay Paper The Low Budget Airline Jetstar Asia Airways Tourism Essay Paper Jetstar Asia Airways is a low-priced budget air hose operating in the Southeast Asiatic part. It is founded by its female parent company Australia s Qantas Airways in 2003. Unlike Jetstar in Australia, Jetstar Asia is bulk Singapore in which a Singapore investing company, Temasek Holdings Limited holds 19 per cent of portions, two Singaporean business communities possess 32 per centum, and the staying 49 per cent of portions belongs to Qantas Group. The company is known as an air hose to offer low menus, all twenty-four hours and every twenty-four hours to South East Asia clients. It has received several valuable awards, such as Best Brand Experience for Low Cost Carrier ( 2006 ) , Best Low Cost Airline, Southeast Asia and Asia ( 2006, 2008 ) , Top 10 Airlines by Passenger Carriage ( 2006, 2007 ) , Best Asiatic Low-Cost Carrier ( 2006, 2007 ) . The first Jetstar Asia Airways flight took off for Hong Kong on December 13, 2004. Jetstar Asia and Valuair Airways Limited were merged on July 22, 2005 ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . With a fleet of seven A320 aircrafts, Jetstar Asia now offers up to 126 hebdomadal flights from Singapore to 17 finishs in 10 Asiatic states. It is be aftering to increase capacity by more three A320 aircrafts by early following twelvemonth and add finishs in India and China. This selling survey aims to supply the Jetstar Asia Airways current selling environment. It will analyze SWOT every bit good as PESTEL to do clearly internal and external selling environment. The study besides discuss about the current market program of Jetstar Asia Airways. From the audit procedure, recommendations will come out for bettering Jetstar Asia Airways selling public presentation in bing competitory air power environment. II. Background Today, planetary air power industry has been divided into three major classs ( Lelieur, 2003 ) . The first class consists of big web bearers, such as United Airlines, American Airlines, and Delta in the United States ; Air France, British Airway, Lufthansa in Europe. The 2nd 1 is the in-between size bearers such as KLM and SAS in Europe. The concluding class is the low cost bearers, such as Jet Blue, Westjet in North America ; Virgin Blue and Australian Airlines in Australia ; Ryanair, EasyJet, and Air Berlin in Europe ; Air Asia, Oasis Hong Kong Airline, Jetsatr Asia Airway, and Tiger Airway in Asia Pacific. Harmonizing to Weiss ( 2008, p.84 ) , Low-cost bearers, besides known as a no frills or price reduction air hoses, offers low menus in exchange for extinguishing many traditional riders services. These air hoses have a lower cost constructions than rivals. They frequently operate a individual rider category and fleet, cut downing preparation and service costs . In recent old ages, the low-priced bearers ( LLCs ) phenomenon has become more popular in air power industry. The low cost air hose concern has experienced surprising growing in term of riders carried and aircraft ordered. LLCs are likely to maintain their monetary value down exhaustively on-line engagement every bit good as supplying the minimal degree of onboard services. They can be seen as a new large success in the universe air hose industry. Harmonizing to OAG s Quarterly Airline Traffic Statistics ( 2007 ) , low cost international flights have increased 20 % twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Asia Pacific witnessed a dramatic growing in low cost sector, with an addition from 3,900 flights and 600,000 seats in 2001 to 61,000 flights and 9.2 million seats in 2007 ( Abacus, 2008 ) . The Asia Pacific low cost market now has accounted for 12 % of all flights and all seats. Many Asiatic states such as Singapore, Malaysia, India has opened up LCCs to attractive a big figure of riders. As an avowal about Jetstar Airways chance, Geoff Dixon, CEO of Qantas Airways Ltd said: We re really confident about the timing of the launch of this air hose. I do nt cognize where other air hoses will stop up but I can guarantee you Jetstar Asia will be about in four old ages clip and will be profitable, so Temasek and our other investors can be confident. ( 2004 ) . Jetstar Asia has announced its gross increases 20 % for the twelvemonth ended 31 March 2008 ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . These proves that low menus has become attract more travelers. The outlook of Jetstar Asia Airways about the universe s largest possible air power market is coming true. 2.2 PEST analysis Plague analysis is a common tool for analyzing an administration s macro-environment to place those factors that might increase the possible for crisis. ( Elliott, Swartz and Herbane, 2002 ) . These include political, economic, societal and technological factors and the analysis examines the impact of each of them on the concern. 2.2.1 Political factors On the August 09, 1965, Singapore left Malaysia Federation and became crowned head, democratic and independent state. In 1967, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand established the Association of Southeast Asiatic Nations ( Asnic, neodymium ) . From 1970 Singapore is considered as a political stableness state. It has become the comfortable state with a widespread web of trading links. So far, Singapore political stableness has leaded to a high rate of economic growing. As one of Asia most stable economic sciences, many Singapore companies have developed good. Singapore economic has been developing services industries such as wealth direction and touristry, air power industry. Singaporean air hose industry plays a cardinal function in Singaporean economic system. It now includes mainstream Singapore Airlines and two low cost air hoses Tiger Airways and Jetstar Asia Airways. However, September 11th terrorist onslaught event in United States caused important fal ling in going. Besides, the political instability in South East Asia part, such as Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia influenced negatively on air power industry in Asia countries. 2.2.2 Economic factors The economic environment consists of factors that affect consumer buying power and disbursement forms . ( Kotler and Armstrong, 2009, p103 ) . These undermentioned analyses will demo how economic factors have an consequence on air power industry. In recent old ages, planetary economic crisis has pushed the trade-service dependent states into worst recession. The universe travel market has besides been affected in this crisis. Harmonizing to International Air Transport Association, due to economic recession, the planetary rider traffic will diminish by 3 % in 2009 and non turning above 4 % until 2011 ( IATA, 2008 ) . Another major factor effects strongly on air hose market, particularly budget air hoses, that is the addition in fuel monetary value. From 2004, the oil monetary value rush was a consequence of three chief factors: increased demand, a little planetary surplus of production capableness, and the fright of supply break. The fuel cost addition caused of 36 % rise of air hose operating costs in 2008. The deathly combination of falling demand and high oil monetary values made a dip of air power industry s profitableness, about losingss of US $ 10.4 billion in 2008. At the same twelvemonth, Asia Pacific air hose industry incurred losingss US $ 300 million ( IATA, 2009 ) . 2.2.3 Social factors Tendencies in societal factors are important constituent of the PEST analysis for air hose industry. Firstly, some factors such as advanced medical commissariats and low ratio at birth have allowed people to populate longer. The mean age of the population has been increasing steadily. Therefore, the merchandises that air hoses offer refering to older and handicapped riders who need aid at airdromes. Besides, traditional household construction has been altering in today modern society. The addition of divorce rate every bit good as figure of one-parent household has become modern-day tendency that travel industry has to make to suit. They can be promotional and merchandise planning policies, which offer to those who are singles or one-parent household. Furthermore, the alterations in the occupation market have impacts for air hose selling policies. Due to work force per unit areas, executives frequently have to do a day-return trip alternatively of two yearss. This has become more of import for short-haul markets. 2.2.4 Technology factors As an advanced engineering, Internet now plays an of import function in air hoses industry. All air hoses have web sites that allow clients to book air ticket online. In doing reserve, clients can besides choose their place. Use of cyberspace in air power industry brings benefits for both air hoses and riders based on cost economy. The application of Simplifying the Business ( StB ) undertaking in about air hoses brings non merely convenience to consumers but besides lower costs to air hoses industry. The undertaking includes electronic-ticketing, Common-Use Self-Service booths, and bar-coded embarkation base on ballss ( BCBP ) . BCBP can be accessed through web sites, booth, and a check-in desk. It will extinguish magnetic-stripe embarkation base on ballss in close hereafter. With PEST analysis as above, selling environment of Jetstar Asia Airways has merely evaluated to see how the company operates in the today altering environment. III. External analysis 1. Micro-environment ( app 1,200 words ) Description of the market Rivals analysis Market size, location, growing and chances Government engagement in the market place 2. Macro-environment 2.1 SWOT analysis A SWOT analysis is an in-depth scrutiny of cardinal factors that are internal ( strengths and failings ) and external ( chances and menaces ) to a concern ( Pinson, 2008, p.33 ) . Strengths are internal capablenesss that may assist a company make its objects. Failings are internal restrictions that may interfere with a company s ability to accomplish its objects. Opportunities are external factors that the company may be able to work to its advantages. Menaces are current external factors that may dispute the company s public presentation. ( Kotler and Armstrong, 2009, p.78 ) . SWOT analysis helps a concern to concentrate on those countries that present the greatest chances and those competences in which it is strongest. That concern look into ways to decrease its failings, develop schemes to get the better of menaces. The undermentioned analysis focuses on Jetstar Asia s SWOT. SWOT ANALYSIS OF JETSTAR ASIA AIRWAYS Internal Strengths Failings Flexible ticket monetary value construction Growth in market portion One type of aircraft Performance Narrow flight finishs. Limited fleet. External Opportunities Menaces Strengthen competitory capableness. Addition in short-haul traveling. Growth in Singapore touristry Addition of fuel monetary value Unpredictable catastrophe factors Swine grippe spread Customers belief. 2.1.1 Strengths Flexible ticket monetary value construction: Jetstar Asia Airways has applied flexible ticket monetary value construction that allows clients can take any sort of ticket, depending on clients demand. Customers can buy which ticket with or without baggage. By this application, Jetstar Asia Airways desires to run into clients diversified demands. Growth in market portion: The Company is traveling to establish its first service into China on December 16, 2009 ( BusinessWeek, 2009 ) . After that, it will offer new finish in India. Furthermore, with 3 extra A320 aircrafts, it will spread out its current capacity by 46 per cent by establishing twice daily services on the Singapore-Phuket path. One type of aircraft: Thankss to working one type of aircraft Airbus A320- Jetstar Asia Airways can salvage cost of fuel ingestion, cost of keeping other aircrafts and cut down cost of staff preparation, taking to take down operation cost. As a consequence, Jetstar Asia Airways can do up competitory advantage to entice more clients by offering low ticket monetary value. Performance: One of the most of import factors impacting clients pick in air hose industry is on-time public presentation. Understand this ; Jetstar has used the computerised Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System ( ACARS ) to guarantee the truth of going clip and arrival clip. In 2008 and 2009, Jetstar s on-time public presentation ever achieved from 92 % to 98 % ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . 2.1.2 Failings Narrow flight finishs: So far, Jetstar Asia Airways has merely exploited its aeronautic paths to 17 finishs across 10 states in Asia Pacific ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . Meanwhile, Tiger Airways has runing with 27 finishs, and Asia Airways has 50 finishs. This can be seen failings of Jetstar Asia in air power competition to achieve clients. Limited fleet: Due to the limited fleet of seven A320 aircrafts, Jetstar Asia Airways has some troubles in spread outing its market portion to new finishs. 2.1.3 Opportunities Jetstar Asia Airways has focused on non merely single riders but besides concern travelers. It has set up several sorts of privilege services for concern travelers to increase figure of riders twelvemonth by twelvemonth. From merely 50 houses in 2004, now Jetstar has 400 corporations going with it ( Baoying, 2009 ) . More and more concerns, even transnational companies, are likely to take low cost air hoses to salvage their concern cost that create possible low cost market for Jetstar Asia Airways and other air hoses. Besides, tendency of short-haul traveling is increasing in figure of Asiatic tourers ; alternatively of long-haul vacations because it enables Asiatic people travel more on a regular basis in twelvemonth. Concentrating on these topics, Jetstar Asia will catch more chances to spread out its market portion. In add-on to this, in Singapore, two incorporate resorts the Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa will be opened in 2010. At that clip, figure of traveler visi ts Singapore will increase dramatically. There will be about 15 million visitants coming to Singapore ( integratedresort, neodymium ) . Such general tendencies as mentioned above will convey chance for Singapore air hose industry, including budget air hoses and mainstream air hoses. 2.1.4 Menaces The addition in fuel monetary value over the past few old ages has bad affected on sustainable growing of Jetstar Asia Airways and air power industry. This can be seen an inexplicit menaces to profitableness of air hoses. Furthermore, the spread swine grippe in many parts has affected significantly on air hose going due to the dramatic lessening of travelers. Unpredictable accidents that come from bad conditions or proficient jobs are besides menaces to air hoses. Passengers may waver in taking between budget air hoses and mainstream air hoses because of the safety in budget air hoses. This menace may veto impact on gross revenues of Jetstar Asia. Recommendation Presents, Asian air hoses industry is acquiring more ferociously competitory between budget air hoses and traditional full services air hoses. Furthermore, competition among the outgrowth of Asiatic budget air hoses, such as Air Asia, Tiger Airways and Jetstar Asia has besides become intensely. In order to better the company s selling public presentation, we suggest some recommendations based on SWOT analysis above and consequences collected from an interview with people who are refering about air hoses market. First, we suggest Jetstar Asia should plan a client driven selling scheme to place its mark market. Its market cleavage includes clients those who normally travel on short draw trips and can non afford mean international tickets. Then the company should construct profitable client relationships based on topics: travelers for leisure, business communities and pupils. Understanding who its clients are, the company will construct client relationship to fulfill their demands. In add-on to this, the consequences from questioning reflect the company s convenience and services are non excessively high, merely over 50 % of respondents think that it is just. In order to capture value from clients and ain client trueness, in its selling schemes, the company needs to construct the right relationship with right clients and make client delectation. The company should beef up clients belief that lower monetary value does non intend bad services. Besides, Jetstar Asia should develop effectual advertisement scheme to consolidate their trade name name through mass media. Furthermore, limited fleet and flight finishs caused limitation in enlargement market place every bit good as pulling mark clients. Therefore, we recommend the company to use competitory schemes. The company should transport out non merely protect its current market portions but besides increase it farther. Books Weiss, J.W. ( 2008 ) Business Ethical motives: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, Cengage Learning, New York. Lelieur, I. ( 2003 ) Law and policy of significant ownership and effectual control of air hoses Prospects for alteration, Ashgate Publishing, Hampshire. Pinson, L.J. ( 2008 ) Anatomy of a concern program: the bit-by-bit usher to constructing a concern and procuring your company hereafter, Out of your mindaÃâ Ã ¦and into the market place, California. Kotler, P and Amstrong, G ( 2009 ) Principles of Marketing, Pearson, New Jersey. A Elliott, D. , Swartz, E. and Herbane, B ( 2002 ) Business continuity direction: a crisis direction attack, Routledge, London Web sites Abacus ( 2008 ) The Year of the Resourceful A ; Enterprising Rat, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.abacus.com.sg BusinessWeek ( 2009 ) Jetstar Airways Pty Ltd, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp? privcapId=10917341 A ; goback=.cps_1247149767187_1 Baoying, Ng. ( 2009 ) Jetstar Asia expands fleet and paths to maintain up with competition, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporebusinessnews/view/450077/1/.html integratedresort ( nd ) Singapore Integrated Resorts, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //integratedresorts.com.sg/ jetstar ( neodymium ) News, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jetstar.com/sg/en/about-us/news.aspx # SinApr16b Asnic ( neodymium ) Singapore history, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //asnic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/singapore/Singapore-History.html IATA ( 2008 ) IATA Economic briefing-The impact of recession on air traffic volumes, accessed September 07, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.iata.org/NR/rdonlyres/7E25AD13-E0AD-4166-ABD8-CFA192D51AB4/0/IATA_Economics_Briefing_Impact_of_Recession_Dec08.pdf IATA ( 2009 ) Annual study 2009, accessed September 07, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.iata.org/nr/rdonlyres/a33bc4b3-431b-4690-be6d-6788900c8ae3/0/iataannualreport2009.pdf Primary Resource Interview We have conducted market research by an interview with clients of Jetstar Asia and non-clients at Changi Airport to happen replies so develop selling scheme for Jetstar Asia. We would be grateful if you could help our group by finishing our questionnaires, which will supply utile information to us. Personal information 1. Sexual activity: a-? Male a-? Female 2. Age scope: a-?18-25 a-? 26-30 a-? 31-40 a-? 41-50 a-? 51-60 3. Occupation: _______________ A. Questionnaires 1. Which air hose with do you normally wing? a-? Mainstream air hoses a-? Budget airlines a-? Never 2. Which budget air hose with do you normally wing? a-? Jetstar Asia a-? Tiger Airways a-? Air Asia a-? Others ____________ 3. What concerns you most when you think of taking the budget air hose? a-? Money a-? Service a-? Convenience a-? Others ____________ 4. Which beginning lead you know Jetstar Asia? a-? Newspapers a-? Internet a-? Friends a-? Others ____________ 5. What is the intent of your trip? a-? Leisure a-? Business a-? Study a-? Others 6. How would you rate Jetstar Asia in footings of service? a-? Poor a-? Fair a-? Good a-? Excellent 7. How would you rate Jetstar Asia in footings of convenience? a-? Poor a-? Fair a-? Good a-? Excellent 8. What do you believe about Jetstar Asia s ticket monetary value comparing to other budget air hoses? a-? High a-? Reasonable a-? Low Thank you really much for taking the clip to reply these inquiries. B. Answers from appraising Question 1: For this inquiry, the consequences show that riders of budget air hoses are lower than that of mainstream air hoses, 27 % compared to 69 % . It means that budget air power s market portion is little. 4 % of the respondents have neer been on plane. Question 2: Reacting this inquiry, outcomes indicate out that Jetstar Asia rank at 3rd place behind Tiger Airways and Air Asia, with 23 % whereas Tiger Airways and Air Asia are 31 % and 42 % severally. 4 % of the replies flew with other air hoses. It should be recommended that Jetstar Asia need more effectual selling scheme to heighten the competitory capacity. Question 3: The consequence illustrate that the most clients concern when they choose budget air hoses is salvaging money, with 69 % of the respondents. Service standards and convenient standards rank the 2nd and the 3rd pick, with 16 % and 13 % severally. 2 % of the replies chose budget air hoses chiefly because attach toing with friends. Question 4: 41 % of the replies show that they knew Jetstar Asia through Internet. Newspapers, Friends and Others are ordered by 27 % , 25 % and 7 % severally. Question 5: For intent of concern, 31 % of the respondents take this consequence. 44 % of the replies show that their trip for leisure. For analyzing intent is 19 % , other intent is 6 % , such as wellness attention, sing old friends. Therefore, Jetstar Asia should concentrate on mark clients who are travelers in order to hike up its gross revenues. Besides it should pay attending to possible client section, including business communities and pupils. Question 6: In term of services, 53 % of respondents explained that they considered Jetstar Asia s services are sensible and acceptable. In contrast, 8 % of interviewees admitted poverty of service. Good standards and first-class standards are appraised by 25 % and 14 % severally. Question 7: Similarly, 51 % of interviewees illustrated that they evaluated convenience is just. 23 % of the replies think that convenience offered by Jetstar Asia is good whilst 15 % of them considered it as first-class. Staying 11 % of respondents are non pleased with Jetstar Asia convenience as they think it is hapless. Question 8: What do you believe about ticket monetary value of Jetstar Asia comparing to other budget air hoses? 64 % of them think that ticket monetary value offered by Jetstar Asia is sensible. 29 % of them believe that is low. Merely 7 % of the replies claim its monetary value is high.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
The 411 on Numeronyms The 411 on Numeronyms The 411 on Numeronyms By Mark Nichol Numerals are often used in numeronyms: in combination with other numerals and with letters to represent a word, phrase, or concept. This post loosens the definition of numeronym to also include a numeral without one or more accompanying letters and with or without other symbols. Ordinal numbers can represent something, as when we speak, for example, of a Ã¢â¬Å"thirdÃ¢â¬ in reference to an additional person who joins two people or when we refer, for example, to Ã¢â¬Å"the 25thÃ¢â¬ to denote a certain day of the month, but the following terms, which include cardinal numbers, represent more than the sum of their parts, too. The number 101, used in combination with a word representing a topic, is used to imply that a piece of knowledge under discussion is elementary, as if it were equivalent to the content of an introductory college course. (Such courses are often numbered 101 in a three-digit designation system.) For example, the principle of supply and demand might be said to be Ã¢â¬Å"Economics 101,Ã¢â¬ meaning it is easy to understand. A 180 is a half turn and a 360 is a full turn, representing the number of degrees in a circle; numbers larger than 360 may appear in reference to sports such as skating or diving in which participants may turn more than one full revolution; 180 may also refer figuratively to someone reversing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s position on an issue. The abbreviations WWI and WWII stand for Ã¢â¬Å"World War IÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"World War IIÃ¢â¬ (and there is also the hypothetical World War III, or WWIII); they are sometimes represented with Arabic numerals, though Roman numerals are the conventional treatment. Y2K is an abbreviation for Ã¢â¬Å"year 2000,Ã¢â¬ pertaining to the (largely unfounded) concern late in the twentieth century that a fundamental programming flaw would, at the turn of the century, cause catastrophic breakdowns in information processing, leading to serious repercussions throughout the civilized world. Another term stemming from business is 24/7, referring to the number of hours in a day and the number of days in a week to denote incessant attention to something. (The term is also extended to 24/7/365 to refer to the number of days in the year as well.) Guns are often referred to simply by their caliber: for example, .22, .357, and .45 refer to the diameter of the bullets used in a particular firearm. 3D is an abbreviation for Ã¢â¬Å"three-dimensional,Ã¢â¬ pertaining to images and films with this feature. Abbreviations for television programs include TW3 for That Was the Week That Was, a satirical comedy program on the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s BBC network during the early 1960s, and MST3K for Mystery Science Theater 3000, a late-twentieth-century American program that poked fun at mediocre low-budget films. Meanwhile W3 is an abbreviation for Ã¢â¬Å"World Wide Web,Ã¢â¬ which is now generally abbreviated to web. To get the 411 on something is to obtain information; 411 is the telephone number for directory assistance, which provides phone numbers for people who want to contact a person or an organization but do not have the entityÃ¢â¬â¢s number. (This number is sometimes styled 4-1-1.) Telephone area codes are often employed as shorthand to refer to geographical regions, as in the use of Ã¢â¬Å"the 415Ã¢â¬ to represent San Francisco and its environs. 401(k) refers to a specific pension account defined in that section of the Internal Revenue Service tax code. Similarly, a tax-exempt nonprofit organization is referred to as a 501(c)(3), a label that pertains to the corresponding section of the IRS tax code. 5K, 10K, and so on are abbreviations referring to footraces of 5,000 and 10,000 meters, respectively, as well as longer events; K stands for kilo-, a prefix meaning Ã¢â¬Å"one thousand.Ã¢â¬ Shorter races held on tracks (and swim events) may be called, for example, Ã¢â¬Å"the 400,Ã¢â¬ referring to a 400-meter dash or another race of that length. Text-speak takes advantage of numeronyms to reduce the number of characters necessary to express a word: Gr8, for example, represents great, and l8r is equivalent to later. Related usage includes computer terms that are abbreviated, for example, from localization to l10n. (The numeronym consists of the first and last letters of the word interrupted by a number representing how many intervening letters are missing.) A similar system is leetspeak (leet derives from elite to acknowledge that those who know the system are privileged to do so in comparison to the ignorant masses), in which numerals replace similarly shaped letters, such as in n00b, which represents a misspelling and abbreviation of newbie (meaning Ã¢â¬Å"noviceÃ¢â¬ ). G8 and G20 refer to international political forums consisting of the respective number of participant nations; G stands for group in designations such as Ã¢â¬Å"Group of 8.Ã¢â¬ K9 is an abbreviation for canine because it is pronounced the same as the word for dogs and other doglike animals; it is employed in the context of dogs used in law enforcement. Also pertaining to law enforcement is the ten-code, a system of numerical codes beginning with 10 that represent words and ideas; the most familiar to laypeople is 10-4, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"understood.Ã¢â¬ Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? 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Thursday, November 21, 2019
Third Writing Assignment - Essay Example Other than the domestic powers, the President also has broad rights over foreign policy. He can appoint ambassadors. The president with the aid of the Secretary of the State can maintain all contact with foreign powers. In many cases, the president can personally be present in Summit conferences where all heads of state assemble for direct consultation. For instance, President Woodrow Wilson represented his country in the Paris peace conference after WWII was over. Since then, US Presidents regularly meet with world leaders for discussion of economic and political matters to reach bilateral and multilateral agreements. The PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s job is also to protect the Americans abroad and look after the foreign nationals in America. The President has the right to approve new nations and government, and enter into treaties with other nations which is however subject to approval from two-third of the Senate. The President also has the right to enter into Ã¢â¬Å"executive agreementsÃ¢â ¬ with other nations which do not need approval from the Senate. The President also acts as the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces since only with power over the army he can add credibility to his foreign policies. He has the power to decide when to intervene abroad. For instance, US Presidents have intervened during wars in Korea and Vietnam by deploying troops as required (Ã¢â¬Å"Presidential PowersÃ¢â¬ ; Watts, 99). The power of the Congress is concerned with collection of taxes, duties, excises and imports. The Congress also allocates funds for the defence and general welfare of the country. According to the US constitution, the Congress has the power to frame foreign policies. The laws passed by the Congress, or the treaties and nominations that the Senate agrees can have impact on the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s interaction with other nations. Although the president has the right to establish and implement foreign policies, it is the Congress who has the right to approve fund
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Health - Article Example Some, with adequate and early therapy, are able to attend regular classes in school and secure avenues of employment afterwards albeit somewhat limited. Though autism is incurable and usually results in social isolation to varying degrees, various forms of treatment have proven to make a decidedly positive impact in the way autistics interact with others. Autism is the most prevalent developmental disorder affecting one in every 166 children (Ã¢â¬Å"How Common?Ã¢â¬ , 2006). Symptoms of the disorder can be generally described as the incapability to adequately interact socially along with a disinterested demeanor. It is an abnormality in the structure of the brain caused by genetic predispositions or from damage occurring during the development phase (Bryson & Smith, 1998). The severity of autism varies widely among individuals as does its related symptoms but there are certain aspects relating to social interaction shared by all with the disorder. Avoiding direct eye contact, distinctive body posturing and facial expressions as well as other nonverbal communication deficiencies are a common trait. Autistic children seldom associate with those of their own age-group as well as showing a general disinterest in interacting with any other people. They also do not demonstrate empathy because they lack the understanding of another personÃ ¢â¬â¢s sorrow or pain. Deficiencies in communication skills can include symptoms such as a delay in speaking development or not being able to speak at all. About half of those with autism never learn to talk. Well-designed and personalized programs targeted to manage an autistic personÃ¢â¬â¢s biological disorder have proven to take full advantage of their learning potential thus lessening the effects of autism. The objective of treatment is to enhance the childÃ¢â¬â¢s language and social development and to curb behaviors which impede the childÃ¢â¬â¢s learning capabilities. A cure is not possible because autism is a chronic cognitive
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Cocoa solids Essay Chocolate! The name brings memories of a sugary and scrumptious sweet in your mouth. Each and every person in the world, whatever be his age or his sex, loves the delicious sin. In fact, chocolate is one of the most preferred gifts on every occasion, birthday or anniversary, ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day or Christmas, wedding or farewell. Whether it is your wife or your boyfriend, your kids or your in-laws, you can present chocolates to almost everyone. While eating a chocolate, have you ever thought how it came into being? If you are ignorant about the origin of chocolate till date, use the interesting information on its background, given below. History of Chocolate The oldest records related to chocolates date back to somewhere around 1500-2000 BC. The high rainfall, soaring temperatures and great humidity of Central American rain forests created the perfect climate for the cultivation of the Cacao Tree. During that time, the Mayan civilization used to flourish in that region. Mayan people worshipped Cacao Tree, believing it to be of divine origin. They also used to roasted and pounded seeds of the tree, with maize and Capsicum (Chilli) peppers, to brew a spicy, bitter sweet drink. The drink was consumed either in ceremonies or in the homes of the wealthy and religious elite. It is said that the word Ã¢â¬ËCacaoÃ¢â¬â¢ was corrupted by the early European explorers and turned into Cocoa. Even the Aztecs, of Central Mexico, are believed to have acquired the beans through trade and/or the spoils of war. In fact, Cacao beans were considered to be so prized by Aztecs that they started using it as a type of currency. They also made a drink, similar to the one made by Mayans, and called it Ã¢â¬ËXocolatlÃ¢â¬â¢, the name which was later corrupted to Chocolat, by Spanish conquistadors. The further corruption of the word, which finally gave it its present form Ã¢â¬â¢ChocolateÃ¢â¬â¢, was done by the English. Entry in Europe Xocolatl, or Chocolate, was brought to Europe by Cortez. It was here that sugar and vanilla were added to the Aztecs brew, to offset its spicy bitterness. The commercialization of chocolate started in Spain, where the first chocolate factories were opened. Spanish treasure fleets brought back dried fermented beans from the new world, roasting and grounding them to make chocolate powder. This powder was used to make European version of the Ã¢â¬ËAztecÃ¢â¬â¢ drink and then, exported to the other countries in Europe. Within a few years, SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s drink become popular throughout the continent and it was around 1520 that it came to England. However, it was only in the year 1657 that the first Chocolate House of England was opened, in London. The popularity of the drink led to a string of other Chocolate Houses. Since cocoa was so expensive, the houses started serving as elite clubs, where the wealthy and business community met to smoke a clay pipe of tobacco, conduct business and socialize over a cup of chocolate. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s America Again Chocolate came to the place of its birth once again. This time, it was the English colonists who carried chocolate, along with coffee, with them to the colonies in North America. These colonies later consolidated into the United States of America and Canada. Despite the changes in the territorial boundaries, chocolate continued to be a favorite of all the Americans, of every age, sex, group, and so on. Till date, the status quo has not changed and hot chocolate is still one of the favorite drinks of the Americans. Modern Chocolate The chocolate of today, in the sold form, took its roots in England. It was around mid-1600, when English bakers started adding cocoa powder to cakes. Seeking to make chocolate drink smoother and more palatable, Johannes Van Houten, a Dutch chemist, invented a technique of extracting the bitter tasting fat (cocoa butter) from the roasted ground beans, in 1828. With this, he paved the way for the chocolate in its present form. It was in 1847 that solid chocolate, as we know of today, was made by Fry Sons of Bristol (England), by mixing sugar with cocoa powder and cocoa butter. The first milk chocolate was made in 1875, by Daniel Peters, a Swiss manufacturer, by mixing cocoa powder and cocoa butter with sugar and dried milk powder. The rest, as they say, is history! Today, chocolate is made across the globe and liked by almost every person in this world.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
The Search for Dostoyevsky in Crime and Punishment Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky who is known as a great novelist wrote timeless classics such as The Idiot, Crime and Punishment, and The Brothers Karamazov, was not only a novelist, but a good psychologist who uncovered the secret sides of the human beings in a very effective way. His novels also affected Freud, Nietzsche, and Joyce. However there is one point that is a mystery. Did Dostoyevsky really reflect his own feelings, especially his fears, into the characters of his novels? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Fyodor was born in Moscow on October 30 in 1821 in Hospital for the poor, the second of seven children. His mother Mme Marya Feodorovna and father Dr. M. Andrey Dostoyevsky whose surname comes from a small village, Dostoevo, came from the Lithuanian nobility. Dr. DostoyevskyÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a priest in Ukrainia who wanted his son to be a priest like him. However, Andrey ran away from home to become a doctor when he was fifteen. He was accepted to the Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy in 1809, and continued his career in various hospitals. FyodorÃ¢â¬â¢s only elder brother Mikhail was born in 1820, one year earlier than Fyodor (Troyat 37).Ã They lived in a small apartment on the hospital grounds for a long time. When Fyodor reached the age of thirteen, Dr. Dostoyevsky became a nobleman, and moved to Darovoe where he bought a small land about 150 versts. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Dostoyevsky mentioned about his mother with a great love. According to him, she was a cheerful, warm and adorable person. He lost her mother in 1837 when he was about sixteen. His father, however, draws a contrast portrait with his mother. He suffered from headaches that affected his character deeply in a negative way. Althou... ...rform, and made him feel like a murderer. This is the fear of a lonely person which forced him to create his unique characters. Many times, I feel guilty as if I committed a murder.Ã¢â¬ F. M. Dostoyevsky Works Cited Conradi, Peter J.Ã Fyodor Dostoevsky.Ã Basingstoke : Macmillan , 1988. Dostoyevsky,Ã Fyodor.Ã CrimeÃ andÃ Punishment. New York: The Modern Library, 1950. Frank,Ã Joseph.Ã Dostoyevsky TheÃ SeedsÃ ofÃ RevoltÃ 18211849.Ã Princeton:Ã Princeton UP,Ã 1976.Ã Frank,Ã Joseph.Ã Dostoyevsky TheÃ YearsÃ ofÃ OrdealÃ 1850 - 1859.Ã Princeton:Ã Princeton UP,Ã 1983.Ã Jones,Ã Malcolm.Ã DostoyevskyÃ AfterÃ Bakhtin ReadingsÃ inÃ DostoyevskyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ Fantastic Realism.Ã Cambridge:Ã Cambridge UP,Ã 1990. Simmons, Ernest J.Ã Dostoyevsky The making of a novelist.Ã London:Ã John Lehmann Ltd,Ã 1950. Troyat, Henri.Ã Dostoyevsky. Istanbul: Cem Yay?nevi,Ã 1973.Ã Ã Ã
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Did the USA need to drop bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945? On the 6th of August 1945, the US dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima,1ushering in the nuclear age. The bomb caused the deaths of over 100,000 people,2with the bulk of the destruction pertaining to innocent civilians. Three days later, the Americans repeated their action at Nagasaki. The aim of the US was not, however, to cause complete annihilation of the Japanese, but to seize the fierce nationalism within Japan, ending world war two. Arguably, this was achieved, with the Emperor Hirohito broadcasting their surrender on the 15th of August.3However, was the Americans use of nuclear warfare justified in their bid for world peace? President of the time Harry Truman stated, Ã¢â¬Å"I never lost any sleep over my decision (to drop the Atomic bomb)Ã¢â¬ , yet, Americans have since been subject to fierce revisionist denialism that there was not an over riding need to employ such a controversial tactic. By 1945 Japan was in ruins. America had continuously bombed strategic Japanese locations, and implemented a blockade that had dramatic effects on the nations civilians, suggesting that the Japanese were close to surrender without the implantation of the A bomb. Conversely, the US had witnessed the JapaneseÃ¢â¬â¢s determination to fight to the bitter end , rather than surrender, and their failure to respond to the Potsdam declaration clearly illustrated this. Through analyzing the historical context in which this dramatic act of war occurred it is difficult to come to a sound judgment on the necessity of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Due to the consequences that would have triggered if the war had continued, i believe that the US did need to drop the bomb on Hiroshima, however, it was not necessary to drop the following bomb on Nagasaki. With the break out of World War two, Hitlers initial victories captured the imagination of the Japanese militarists, showing what could be achieved through a program of territorial expansionism. Due to the war, changes occurred in EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial powers, which created a power vacuum in South East Asia, and a perfect stage for Japan to expand their influence; as Edwin P Hoyt stated Ã¢â¬Å"Japans ambition at the lowest level was to replace the Europeans and the Americans as the colonial powersÃ¢â¬ ¦establishing an AsianÃ FederationÃ¢â¬ . This shift in power however was not supported by the US , creating a poisonous relationship between the two nations that would end in catosptrophy. The US implemented harsh economic sanctions, resulting in an ultimatum for Japan. Japan could either give into the pressure from the US and retreat from South East Asia, or , they could advance to take over the resources of Malaya and the oil fields of the Netherlands East Indies, which would indefinitely lead to war with the US. Historian Hugh brogan affirms Roosevelt was Ã¢â¬Å" convinced US would enter the warÃ¢â¬ ¦yet refused to fire the first shotÃ¢â¬ . The Japanese planned to adopt a dual approach were upon they would enter into negotiations with the US and prepare for war at the same time. The Japanese believed that war might be avoided if the 1Ã L.Morton, Decision to use the Atomic bomb, Foreign Affairs, 1956. US dropped the sanctions in return for their withdrawal from Indochina; however, on the 26th of November Cordell Hull made an unacceptable demand, claiming that the Japanese were required to withdraw from not just Indo China, but also China. Japan deemed this unacceptable, and at the Imperial Conference 1st December 1941 a final decision was made to go to war with the US, and orders were made to carry out a surprise attack on the US naval base of Pearl Harbour. On the 7th of December 1941 the Japanese attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbour, killing 2388 soldiers 9, in the hopes of knocking the United States out of a Pacific war, allowing them to pursue their strategic and imperialistic goals. However, Japans failure to achieve total victory meant that the Japanese unified a nation against them, which then mobilised its mighty economy into a war machine that eventually defeated Japan. The importance in understanding the context which resulted in Japan and US warfare is vital in evaluating whether the US needed to drop the Atomic bomb. This being as it is evident that since the emergence of Japan as world power, the US have been present, and determined to minimise the JapaneseÃ¢â¬â¢s influence. This relationship of dominance , whereby the US hands Japan harsh ultimatums is arguably one of the reasons why Japan refused to surrender in 1945, and will be discussed in depth as the essay progresses. As the conflict between the US and Japan developed the Japanese initially stunned the United States with their success, ending the period of European colonial rule in Asia within just 6 months, bringing to fruition the Japanese dream of a Greater East Asia Co Prosperity Sphere. The Japanese demolished the creed of European and white superiority that had been the bastion of European colonialism in Asia, completely reshaping the political dynamics of Asia. However, intoxicated by their success, rather than consolidating their gains, they still searched for new opportunities. The Allies began their counter attack, however, became aware of the determination that defined Japanese militarism, whereby their soldiers were willing to fight to death, rather than surrender. During December and January 1944 and 1945 the Americans regularly bombed the islands of Iwo Jima, launched 334 BÃ¢â¬â¢29s on the capital Tokyo killing 83000 people in March, and attacked Okinawa, the site of a major military base10. Thus by July 1945, Japan had few ships and planes to defend itself, and was met with leaflets from the US announcing in advance where the next attack would take place, urging people to surrender. Furthermore, the blockade implemented by the allies was severely impacting the Japanese, solidifying that defeat was inevitable, yet the Allies heard no news of surrender from the Emperor. Consequently the US began to evaluate the implementation of the A bomb as a necessary method in order to bring the war to a conclusion. President Truman described the Atomic project as the Ã¢â¬Ëgreatest scientific gamble in historyÃ¢â¬â¢ and believes his decision to drop it was unquestionably the right decision, bringing the war to a quick. end, and saving the lives of thousands of Allies. Prior to its use, the Potsdam Declaration was released, informing the Japanese that they must surrender unconditionally or face Ã¢â¬Ëprompt and utter destructionÃ¢â¬â¢. (Unknown to the Japanese this was a reference to the A-Bomb). The allies hoped that an invasion of Japan could be avoided if the declaration was accepted, however, with the JapaneseÃ¢â¬â¢ failure to reply, the count down to the firstÃ use of an atomic bomb moved onward. On the 6th of August 1945, the Enola Gay was released over the city of Hiroshima12, an unprecedented attack resulting in mass scale destruction. President Truman announced following that Ã¢â¬ËIf Japan does not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earthÃ¢â¬â¢. 13However, despite, the destruction of Hiroshima, the American Government received no communications from the Japanese government in Tokyo, resulting in a secon d bomb launched on Nagasaki. Consequently, on the 14th of August, after failed attempts of safeguarding his position, the Emperor accepted the Allied terms. Hirohito made an official radio broadcast to the nation, stating Ã¢â¬Ëshould we continue to fightÃ¢â¬ ¦it would lead to the total extinction of human civilisationÃ¢â¬â¢, 14and on the 2nd of September, aboard the Missouri, the main surrender occurred, ending the conflict in the pacific. The atomic bomb, although causing mass scale disaster, finished the cruel and drawn out conflict, however, does that mean that it was necessary, and can be justified? Perhaps the biggest debate which argues that the bomb was not needed was that fact Japan was in fact already defeated. Dennis Wainstock, author of Ã¢â¬ËThe decision to drop the bombÃ¢â¬â¢ believes that the blockade, in conjunction with the BÃ¢â¬â¢29s attack destroyed Japan, broadening the realisation of defeat. Rear Admiral Tochitane Takata said Ã¢â¬ËThe b29Ã¢â¬â¢s were the greatest single factor in forcing the Japanese to surrenderÃ¢â¬â¢ with Lieutenant General Kawabe believing Ã¢â¬Ëit is my opinion our loss in the air lost us the warÃ¢â¬â¢.16 Furthermore, Japan was economically dependant on foreign sources, thus the blockade favoured the conviction that defeat was inevitable as the Japanese population was starving to death. Additionally, there is significant evidence to support the argument that Japan would have surrended without use of the Atomic bomb, had the US been willing to safe guard the position of the Emperor. The Soviet Union received world from high-level Japanese sources confirming this, which, although many deny American knew about, Secretary of War Henry Stimson wrote Ã¢â¬ËIt was known to us that she had gone so far as to make tentative proposals to the soviet GovernmentÃ¢â¬ ¦not considered seriouslyÃ¢â¬â¢. However despite the aforementioned evidence suggesting that the Japanese were already defeated, it is arguable that that did not mean that they would surrender. throughout the war that, despite severe loss, they would rather die, than surrender. The invasion of Iwo Jima and Okinawa resulted in severe casualties, yet the Allies heard no talk of negotiations. Joseph C.Grew, who was the former Ambassador to Japan believed, through Ã¢â¬Ëintimate experience with the Japanese thinking and psychology over an extensive periodÃ¢â¬â¢18 that regardless of military defeat, it would be highly unlikely that Japan would of their own initiative surrender. Additionally, Historian Barton Bernstein wrote Ã¢â¬Ë no one who looks at intransigence of the Japanese militarists should have full confidence in any other strategy (apart from the A bomb), 19which affirms TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision that it was necessary in order to bring the war to a quick end. Furthermore, The American public was overwhelmingly behind the atomic bombing of Japan, with the bomb receiving an 85% approval 20rating, proving that within the context of the disaster, it was not considered to be as controversial as it is with the power of hindsight. From analysing the arguments for and against the US decision to drop the A bomb on Hiroshima it is clear that this controversial act of war is not easily declared right or wrong. However, arguably it is harder to argue on the side of the Allies when it comes to determining the necessity of the second bomb on Nagasaki. After the dropping of the first bomb, the Soviets declared war on Japan, which many historians believe would have been more than enough to convince the Japanese to surrender. As John W. Downer affirms in Ã¢â¬ËUnconditional surrender at the SmithsonianÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëmost Japanese accounts then and since weigh the soviet declaration of war as being at least as shocking as the Hiroshima bombingÃ¢â¬â¢. Further supported by Historian Gar Alperovitz, who believes that the shock of a soviet declaration of war would force Japan to realise defeat was inevitable and then clarification of surrender terms (assurance of the Emperor) would produce the surrender before an invasion took place. However, the US failed to hear a response in the delegated amount of time, and thusly, launched a second bomb on Nagasaki, resulting in the eventual surrender of Ja pan. When the US made their decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan, initiating the nuclear arms race, it was inevitable that TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision would be analysed, causing controversy for years to come. There is a plethora of published work that strongly believes that the US decision toÃ employ the A bomb was a mistake, and was blatantly not necessary as Japan was so weak indicating that surrender was not far off. Additionally, it cannot be forgotten that the victims of the bomb were primarily innocent civilians, thus from a moral point of view, the action cannot be justified. However, Japans militaristic attitude throughout the war consistently affirmed the US belief that Japan would never surrender of their own accord, and the A bomb was a necessary action in order to conclude the war. From analysing both sides of the argument i believe that the US did need to drop the first bomb in order to display to Japan that they did not have any other option but to surrender, however, the dropping of the second bomb was definitely not needed. The bombing of Hiroshima, in conjunction with the entry of the Soviet Union was more than enough to force Japan to surrender, and thusly, the bombing of Nagasaki cannot be justified. Bibliography Books 1. A.Pollock, D.McKinlay, J.Cantwell, Conflict in the Pacific 1937-195, McGraw Hill Publications, Australia 2003. 2. H.Truman, Memoir: Year of Decisions, Garden City 1955 3. H.L.Stimson, M.Bundy, On Active Service in peace and War, Harper and Brothers, New York 1948 4. D.Eisenhower, The white house years: Mandate for change 1953-1956, Garden City 1963 5. W.D.Leahy, I was there, Whittlesey House, New York 1950 6. J.C.Grew, Turbulent Era: A diplomatic Record of forty years 1904-1945, Hougton Mifflin Company 1952 7. H.L.Stimson, The decision to use the Atomic Bomb, week 13 reading 8. K.Doak, Nationalism in Modern Japan, Koninklike 2007, 9. E.Cannizzaro, The Law of Treaties beyond the Vienna Convention, Oxford 10. E.P.Hoyt, University Press 2011,Japans war: The Great Pacific Conflic, Random House 1971 11. D.D.Wainstock, The Decision to drop the Atomic Bomb, Prager Publishers, 1996 12. G. Alperovitz, The Decision to drop the Bomb, Vintage Books 1996 Articles 1. Barton J. Bernstein, A post war myth, 50000 U.S lives saved, Bulliten of Atomic Scientists, vol 3 no.9 2. John W. Dower, Unconditional Surrender at the Smithsonian, Week 13 Reading 3. L.Morton, Decision to use the Atomic bomb, Foreign Affairs, 1956 Website 1.The project of the Nuclear Age Peace foundation.org http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/library/ correspondence/stimson-henry/corr_stimson_1945-07-31.htm
Sunday, November 10, 2019
When congress or the president proposes fiscal policies to correct unhealthy economic conditions, the time it takes from the recognition of the problem, to the proposal of a solution, to the implementation, up to the time that the effects would yield some result normally takes a considerable amount of time. These time lags can be grouped into three different phases, the recognition time lag, the implementation time lag, and the response time lag. Time lags in Discretionary Fiscal Policy, besides consuming some considerable amount of time, are also very unpredictable.Studies have shown that Ã¢â¬Å"discretionary actions have shown little consistent response over timeÃ¢â¬ (Taylor, 2003). With these three time lags adding up together, we can say that when the government generates one proposal to ease out economic health, one must foresee that within the period of lag, there are no roadblocks or events that could alter the eventual outcome of such a solution. Given the initial informat ion that time lags are very unpredictable, it makes it more difficult to know what range of time needs to be foreseen.So within the period of the time lag, the conditions may alter in such a way that when the discretionary policy is already in place it is no longer applicable, or it could make the situation worst where the change of conditions within the time lag would work in such a way that it makes things worst. Let us focus first on a condition where discretionary fiscal policies would end up useless or delayed as the chain of events within the time lag would make it inappropriate.One example is President George Bush response to the September 11 attack where he immediately requested $40 billion in emergency supplemental appropriations. In the late October of that same year, he added additional stimulus that includes, Ã¢â¬Å"reduced taxes for low- and moderate-income households, accelerating the tax cuts passed in 2001, allowing partial expensing on business capital equipment, el iminating the corporate alternative minimum tax, and extending unemployment benefitsÃ¢â¬ (Cooper, 2002). Five months later President Bush added expensing provisions and unemployment benefits.The result was that the people believed that the added policy was short and late. This is because there was no way for the President to directly quantify the needed policy to ease out the economic stress after the September 11 attack. The delay took so long that the needed effects came late. The events that occurred due to sentiments and fear where overlooked while the effects of the discretionary policy were not yet in effect. According to Auerbach (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"the impact of policy on current activity depends on expectations about the futureÃ¢â¬ .The worst scenario would occur when discretionary fiscal would actually work against what it was intended for. This is because discretionary fiscal policy is an inexact science with congress having different agendas trying to work out with the P resident using present data that are already in effect and taking time to generate a corrective action for the present conditions. For example Ã¢â¬Å"temporary investment incentives may work in the opposite direction strengthening the immediate response but also, potentially, weakening prior investmentÃ¢â¬ (Auerbach, 2002).This is because when the data are collected and fiscal policies are put in place, the progress of investment within this period could well be depending primarily on prior investment that are expected to boom during the period where the discretionary fiscal is still in the process of being implemented. Upon implementation of the discretionary policy, these prior investments could be affected by massive competition of new investment resulting in a scenario where the discretionary fiscal will worsen the economic condition.In the end, this document does not discourage the use of discretionary fiscal policy but puts caution that discretionary fiscal policies should be well thought off, assessing the possible future risk before it is being implemented. Effective discretionary fiscal policy is just like mastery of any art, that a group of body, the congress and the president, must become a guru in order for discretionary policies to be effective. References Taylor,J. (2003). Reassessing Discretionary Fiscal Policy. Stanford University, Retrieved September 15, 2007 from http://www.stanford.edu/~johntayl/Papers/Reassessing+Revised.pdf Cooper, K. (2002). Monetary Policy. Economics: Principles, and Policies, 16/e.. Retrieved March 23, 2007 from https://www.esa.doc.gov/Speeches/NABEFINAL.doc Auerbach, A. (2002). Is There a Role for Discretionary Fiscal Policy?. The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Retrieved September 15, 2007 from http://www.kansascityfed.org/publicat/Sympos/2002/pdf/S02auerbach.pdf
Thursday, November 7, 2019
MASSED PRACTICE AND DICTRIBUTIVE PRACTICE1 essays Running head: MASSED PRACTICE AND DICTRIBUTIVE PRACTICE The Effects of Massed Practice and Distributive Practice on Motor Skill Task. Queens College/ City University of New York Over a century scientist have wonder if massed practice conditions are superior to distributive practice conditions or visa versa. According to a mete-analytic review scientists have researched this very phenomenon and have concluded that distributive practices conditions are superior to those of massed practice conditions in a variety of situations. These results are supported by Maureen Bergondys experiment on team practice schedules as well as William C. Chaseys experiment on distribution of practice on learning retention and relearning. This experiment deals with the relationship between conditions of massed practice and distributive practice with respect to task performance. The motor skill task performed by subjects in this study wrote the English alphabet upside down fifty times. One group was given the massed practice motor task; while subjects from the five other groups practiced the motor task under five different distributions of time. However, our findings do not support those of previous findings. Our mixed factorial experiment with 51 subjects indicates that neither massed practice conditions or distributive practice conditions were superior. Therefore, the subjects acquisition of the motor task did not improve as a result of massed or distributed practice, but rather as the result of practice alone. Massed Practice and Distributive Practice Massed practice conditions are those in which individuals practice a task continuously without rest. While distributive practice conditions are those in which individuals are given rest intervals within the practice session. This mixed factorial experiment with 51 subjects deals with the effects of massed practice and distributive practice with respect to acqui...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Ulterior and Alterior Ulterior and Alterior Ulterior and Alterior By Maeve Maddox A reader brought alterior to my attention by asking if a use of Ã¢â¬Å"ulterior motiveÃ¢â¬ he read in an article should have been Ã¢â¬Å"alterior motive.Ã¢â¬ Although I found several speculative Ã¢â¬Å"definitionsÃ¢â¬ of alterior on various sites, neither the OED nor Merriam-Webster offers an entry for this word. Because it seems always to occur with motive or motives, I conclude that alterior is an error for ulterior. The adjective ulterior derives from Latin ulterior: Ã¢â¬Å"further, more distant.Ã¢â¬ An ulterior motive is one that lies beyond the apparent motive. For example, when a popular product develops a feature that makes the product more convenient, the apparent motive is to make the product easier for the customer to use. The ulterior motive is to earn more money by selling more merchandise. The mistaken use of alterior is especially common on sites related to emotional involvements, television, sports, and political opinion. Here are some examples, with corrections: INCORRECT: Im not convinced hes doing anything out of the kindness of his heart for women or anyone. Feels like he always has alterior motives.- Soap opera blog. CORRECT : Im not convinced hes doing anything out of the kindness of his heart for women or anyone. Feels like he always has ulterior motives. INCORRECT: The thing that bothers me the most is that there is no honesty or real emotion into anything that they say. Everything they say has an alterior motive.- Therapy blog. CORRECT : The thing that bothers me the most is that there is no honesty or real emotion in anything that they say. Everything they say has an ulterior motive. INCORRECT: People like to put on fronts and might have alterior motives when you dont have a shared history that can easily fool you.- Quora user. CORRECT : People like to put on fronts and might have ulterior motives when you dont have a shared history that can easily fool you. INCORRECT: The [remarks of] the salesman sounded like they came from a politician. He seemed to dodge every question, whether it be from lack of knowledge or alterior motives I dont know.- Yelp review. CORRECT : The [remarks of] the salesman sounded like they came from a politician. He seemed to dodge every question, whether it be from lack of knowledge or ulterior motives I dont know. INCORRECT: I usually appreciate good sportsmanship, but that was just weird. It was very obvious that there was an alterior motive, because of the way the groups were separated.Ã - TV fan blog. CORRECT : I usually appreciate good sportsmanship, but that was just weird. It was very obvious that there was an ulterior motive, because of the way the groups were separated.Ã Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:What Is Irony? (With Examples)The Writing ProcessEducational vs. Educative
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Something relating to the history of the Holocaust - Research Paper Example The contrary will be shown. It will be shown that they had a class system. They had classified the types of citizens as early as 1936. The infrastructure had been created and the fascilities were built before the Germans even entered Dutch soil enabling the Germans to come in and murder over 100 000 people in less than 3 years. Three stages will be examined is this essay. From 1936-1939, when the national decree dictated who was a dutch citizen and the creation of refugee centers. From 1939 to 1940, when Westerbrok was voted into Parliament as a center for the "legal refugees". To conclude with the capitulation of the Netherlands government within 5 days in 1940 and the consequences it had on the Shoah. Please note that in the sources there is much conflicting information due to the age of the survivors and the difference in translations and countries methods of notations.. 1936-139 The Jewish population of Amsterdam represented approximately 10% of the population. The attitude was r ather avant garde, agnostic, assimilated and had benefited greatly from the WWI attitude of being a neutral state.(Hillesum 1999) There was a sense of safty of being Dutch before being Jewish. The general consensus was accepting the census as a natural govermental process. Upon registering in 1936, Jews were told that as citizens they would be protected. (Vanderwerff 2010)The atmosphere as explained by Etty Hillesum, in her Letters of Westerbork, was that she had no desire for organised religion. Life was absurd. God was helpless (12/07/1942) She was born into an agnostic family. Before 1941, she was lost in the different intellectual circles of Amsterdam. She had failed her exam to get into law school. She studied Slavic studies and then went on to tutor. This is an insight into the Jewish population of Amsterdam. The intellectual assimilation would eventually be the demise of the Jews of Amsterdam. The felt themeselves more protected and superior over the German Jews who were ofte n poorer and less educated then the Dutch Jews. They had jobs and lived in proper housing. They were not touched by the refugee housing or economic situation. As in other European nations, they considered themselves citizens of the nation of their birth. In 1936, by Royal Decree it was voted that a national census would require new identity cards in order to define who were Dutch citizens. Religion was required on the last line of the card. (Vanderwerff 2010) In 1939, Refugees were forced to register. Legal Refugee Jews (Stateless) were defined by having been born in a country that no longer existed because of World War I and having been born in Poland. Illegal Refugee Jews were those who came into the Netherlands without any visas. Illegal refugees were sent back to Germany. (Vanderwerff 2010) In World War I, The Netherlands had remained a neutral State. It was common knowledge that the Netherlands was a state that had had an open door policy. Because of the depression, lack of job s and overall anti-semitism, German Jews and Stateless Jews were considered secondary citizen to Dutch citizens. The geo-political economic situation of Europe has changed the map. Dutch citizens were given precedents over refugees in employment and housing. What had been refugee homes all over the country since 1936 had become internment camps in
Friday, November 1, 2019
Gay Rights Towards Gay Marriage Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2
Gay Rights Towards Gay Marriage - Research Paper Example However, whether same sex individuals be allowed to marry is still controversial. This paper argues that gay marriage should be legalized because same-sex parents can prove to be better parents; it reinforces their rights as humans; and, it stabilizes the society through child adoption. Gay marriages should be legalized since same sex couples can prove to be better parents than opposite sex couples. Biblarz and Stacey (3) argue that the gender of parents Ã¢â¬Å"has minor significance for childrens psychological adjustment and social success.Ã¢â¬ Family instability may take its toll on normal psychological development of children of both straight and same-sex couples, and so, it is not true that only gay parents prove to be bad parents by any means. They may prove to be better parents, states Kurdek (880) in his research. He argues that two men or women can raise kids better in terms of sexual growth, than a man or a woman in a traditional home setting. Kids of gay couples do not have to see one of their parents involved in extra-marital affairs. They do not have to see their moms and dads fighting with each other every day. Kids pay little attention to what the relationship between their parents is, or whether or not their relationship relates to societal norms or not. All they want is love, of parents towards them and also towards each other. So, the relationship between parents has nothing to do with children becoming homo or hetero-sexual. Thus, gay marriages should be legalized without getting concerned about the parenting capabilities of the couples involved. Ã¢â¬Å"Same-sex marriages will offer voluntary support to the institution by allowing freedom in selecting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s partnerÃ¢â¬ , states Bolte (1). She has focused upon the reinforcement of human rights regarding selection partner through utilitarian arguments.
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Business communications - Essay Example The balance of trade becomes affected in such cases, thereby adversely affected the economy as whole. The Canadian dollar is positively correlated to the strength of the world commodity prices. This situation will boost imports as most traders will find it highly profitable to export to Canada at a comparatively lower exchange rate compared to the U.S. dollar. However, the exports will be affected negatively since it will be comparatively expensive to export Canadian products compared to the U.S. products. In conclusion, the fact that the recent report on the Purchasing Power Parity estimates a bundle of goods that cost a consumer $1 CAD in Canada would cost in the range of 80-85 US cents in the United States is a strong indication that some economic improvement should be done. As the Canadian dollar trends along these ranges, the Canadian consumers are, and will be paying a significant value on their goods compared to their counterparts in the United
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The personality disorders | Analysis Personality or personality traits are the basis of what makes a person who they are. When expressed in a healthy way that is beneficial to a person, they are described as an enduring pattern of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. They are how we think, feel, make decisions, and take actions (Barker, 1995). They are determined both by a persons genetic makeup and environmental factors and are a determining factor as to how a person lives their life. When a personality trait becomes rigid and dysfunctional, where it significantly hinders healthy thoughts and activities and harms the person who has them, this may be the basis for a personality disorder. According to the DSM-IV a personality disorder must show a lasting pattern of behavior and inner experience that markedly deviates from norms of the persons culture (James Morrison, 2006). This could include personality patterns that are normal in some people, but are exaggerated or accentuated in those with a personality disorder. In order for a person to be diagnosed with a personality disorder, the symptoms must show a lifelong pattern of manifestation. This means that the disorder is typically identified in late adolescence or early adulthood and persists throughout a lifespan. Another requirement for the diagnosis of personality disorders is that the negative behavior patterns must have a pervasive effect on all areas of a persons life; this includes employment, intimate relationships, social functioning, and family. The behavior must routinely causes problems or dysfunction, and cannot be attributed to any other sort of mental or physical illness (James Morrison, 2006). An indi vidual with a personality disorder will show maladjustment in all aspects of their life and the disorder will be reflected in the ingrained, rigid, and dysfunctional patterns that they present throughout their lifetime. According to Frances, personality disorders usually produce ego-syntonic behavior, or consistent with the ego integrity of the individual, and, therefore, are usually considered appropriate by the individual. This may cause the negative behavioral patterns to be inflexible and tough to change. (Frances, 1999) The treatment of personality disorders is usually difficult and often has limited results. In the DSM-IV there are three groups or clusters that each of the 10 personality disorders fall into. People with cluster A disorders are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior, abnormal cognitions or ideas, strange speech or actions, and difficulty relating to others (Frances, 1999). People diagnosed with personality disorders are more frequently diagnosed with an Axis I disorders as well (James Morrison, 2006). Frequent co-morbid diagnosis for cluster A personality disorders are: agoraphobia, major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse (Frances, 1999). Type A disorders include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. Paranoid personality disorder, the first of the cluster A disorders, is characterized by extreme or unnecessary paranoia, suspiciousness, and a general mistrust of organizations, groups, and others, is found in 0.5%-2.5% of the population, as a whole and occurs more commonly in males (Frances, 1999). A person with paranoid personality disorder often thinks, without reason or cause, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them, which inhibits them from developing close relationships. According to Dobbert, The delusional belief that others are disloyal and untrustworthy precludes their ability to confide in others. The afflicted person believes that the information that they provide in confidence will be later utilized to bring them harm (Dobbert, 2007). People with paranoid personality disorder also tend to hold grudges and become angry for seemingly benign perceptions of insults or injuries. These grudges can be long lasting and based out of perceived threats or insults. Even if the intention to harm or defame the person is not present, due to the constant expectation that others are trying to hurt them, an individual with a paranoid personality disorder creates a threat and will then hold malice toward another person for an exaggerated amount of time. This malice will evoke anger and hostility that will eventually lead to the alienation and isolation (Dobbert, 2007). The second of the cluster A disorders is the schizoid personality disorder, it is characterized by a general detachment from social settings, a restricted or muted range of emotions, and need for solidarity. It is found in 3% of the general population and affects women more commonly then men (Frances, 1999). A person with schizoid personality disorder neither desires nor enjoys close or intimate relationships. According to Dobbert, Persons afflicted with schizoid personality disorder find no interest in initiating, developing, and maintaining close relationships. It is not uncommon for these persons to lack the interest or desire to be considered a part of their biological family (Dobbert, 2007). These people do not find inclusion in groups or social settings particularly interesting or desirable and work to avoid such settings. A person with schizoid personality disorder is described as appearing introverted, but not shy, and seems to prefer their own company instead of seeking relationships with others. This often leads the person showing little if any interest in sexual or intimate experiences, preferring acts of self-gratification and sexual fantasy over personal contact. (Dobbert, 2007) Due to the indifference of intimate relationships, the person with schizoid personality disorder develops limited interest in activities they enjoy and does not seek to share these activities with others. They would prefer to focus their attention on a few activities and interests of a solitary nature and to obsess about those interests with little regard to the perceptions of others. They also seem to be unaffected by the acceptance, praise, or criticism of others involving their actions and isolation. It becomes obvious to those around them that a person with schizoid personality disorder does not care what others perceptions are and they often seem cold, detached, and unemotional, presenting a bland or blank expression to the world (Dobbert, 2007). The final disorder in cluster A is the schizotypal personality disorder which is a condition characterized by distorted thoughts, behaviors, and functioning. Magical thinking, relationship difficulties, severe anxiety, and poor social skills are also common. (James Morrison, 2006) This disorder affects 3% of the general population and is diagnosed slightly more in females then males. (Frances, 1999) People with schizotypal personality disorder perceive things in an odd or unusual way. Their interpretation often differs from that of others and is specific to themselves (meaning nobody else shares similar perceptions and thoughts), but is not based out of delusional thought or differing cultural norms. Many of these people believe that that they have extrasensory or magical powers and attribute their odd perceptions to this ability (Dobbert, 2007). The belief in clairvoyance, mind control, the sixth sense and other forms of magical thinking often lead others to view these people as odd which strains social and work relationships. To compound this, many people with schizotypal personality disorder have a reduced ability to understand other peoples actions and respond to them inappropriate and in a socially unacceptable manner. Having few successful experiences with others often leads to social anxiety, suspiciousness, and paranoid ideation. Dobbert states rather than examining ones self to determine the source of others avoidance, people with schizotypal personality disorder believe that the others are conspiring against them. Due to the inability of self-introspections, the afflicted person withdraws deeper and further isolates themselves, leading the person to further fall into their delusional thinking (Dobbert, 2007). People with cluster B disorders are characterized by dramatic, unpredictable, and destructive behaviors as well as difficulty with impulsiveness, the violation of social norms, and being self-abusive and hostile to others. It is common for these disorders to share co-morbidity with eating disorders, social phobias, somatization disorder, pathological gambling, substance abuse, and post traumatic stress disorder (Frances, 1999). Included in cluster B are antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders. According to the DSM-V, the first of the cluster B disorders is the antisocial personality disorder, which is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violations of, the rights of others (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by failure to conform to social norms, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggression, irresponsibility, and lack of remorse. It affects 3% of men and 1% of women, and is distributed evenly throughout all races (Frances, 1999). People with antisocial personality disorder act against social norms and show little respect for lawful behaviors. They are often arrested or commit acts that could lead to confrontations with law enforcement. According to Dobbert, people with this disorder dont just violate social normsbut, perform behaviors that are significant violations of the criminal code (Dobbert, 2007). This indicates that people with antisocial personality disorder are capable of committing the most heinous of crimes including rape, armed robbery, and murder. This diagnosis had been applied to many of the documented serial killers such as Ted Bundy, Jeffery Dahmer, and John Wayne Gacy. (Dobbert, 2007) The level of deceptiveness that is involved in antisocial personality disorder has been directly linked to the intelligence of the individual. While all people diagnosed with this disorder pathologically lie, as intelligence increases the use of aliases and conning operations also shows an increase. Deception contributes to the notable involvement with law enforcement and is often utilized in criminal acts (Dobbert, 2007). As displayed by criminal and deceptive acts, a lack of impulse control is noted for those diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. This impulsivity often leads to the disregard for personal safety and the safety of others. In the ever increasing need for heightened stimulation, those with antisocial personality disorder do whatever gives them the feeling of power over others (Dobbert, 2007), this may include hurtful, violent, and aggressive acts done with little regard for other peoples feelings or of the consequences of their actions. The second disorder in cluster B, borderline personality disorder, is stated by the American Psychiatric Association as pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects and marked impulsivity (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by identity disturbances, self-damaging behavior, feelings of emptiness, anger regulation problems, and stress related paranoid ideation or dissociative symptoms. Affecting more females than males at a rate of 3-1, it is found in 2% of the general population (Frances, 1999). Dysfunctional relationships are the key area that defines borderline personality disorder. Dobbert states that persons afflicted with borderline personality disorder are obsessed with the potential for rejection and abandonment. Their perception of the environment and persons response to them influences their feeling of self-worth and image (Dobbert, 2007). They often misconceive common circumstances and situations as rejection. This then manifests itself in anger, resentment, and feelings of abandonment. In order to tailor themselves to a relationship, the person with borderline personality disorder will illustrate a sudden change in self expression and perception. These changes may include sudden changes in the style of clothing, attitude, and social preferences of the individual and may also encompass hobbies, interests, and activities. If an individual is rejected by the object of that relationship, they will change themselves again to distance themselves from their past relationship and attract a new one (Dobbert, 2007). In order to manipulate others and stage off real or perceived abandonment, a person with borderline personality disorder will threaten or attempt suicidal behavior, and self-mutilation. Threatening self-injury or suicide allows the individual to control the other person in the relationship and allows them to postpone the abandonment that they so fear. While attempts are made on the part of a person with this disorder, many of them are half-hearted and not meant to be successful; they are simply utilized as a device evoke a desired reaction from another person. Histrionic personality disorder is the third of the cluster B disorders, and is described as pervasive and excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by sexual promiscuity, rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotion, self-dramatization, and suggestibility. It is found in 2-3% of the population and is diagnosed more often in women (Frances, 1999). Typically, people with histrionic personality disorder exhibit a compulsatory need to be the center of attention. When they find themselves being ignored or not admired they feel anxiety and identify confusion. These people are very socially motivated and expect to be noticed and envied by others. In order to gain attention many people with histrionic personality disorder focus intensely on appearance or act overdramatically in hopes of creating a scene to gain attention. Seductiveness and overtly sexual and provocative behavior is another way for people with histrionic personality disorder to gain attention. Flirtatious and intimate behavior is often used, even in inappropriate settings such as work, to gain attention. A conflict surrounding this inappropriate behavior, instead of inhibiting the behavior, only works to reinforce it as the center of attention again shifts to the disordered person. Narcissistic personality disorder, the final disorder of the cluster B sub-type is characterized by exaggeration of achievements, preoccupation with success and power, excessive need for admiration, a sense of entitlement, exploitation, envy, and arrogance (Frances, 1999). The DSM-V states that narcissistic personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, with a need for admiration, and a marked lack of empathy (James Morrison, 2006). Of the general population less than 1% of the population suffers from narcissistic personality disorder and it is diagnosed 3-1 in males over females and is commonly classed the male ego disorder (Frances, 1999). Those who suffer from this disorder are prone to overinflating or creating achievements in order to brag about or prove their superiority to others. They often daydream about unlimited success and about the admiration that it will bring from others. They may also suffer from delusions that allow them to believe that they are entitled to act in any way they want, despite the effect it has on others. Because they view themselves as superior, the narcissist does not feel that they should be concerned themselves with the feelings of others. They will often defame and exploit others for their own self promotion. This marked lack of empathy is a dominate feature of narcissistic personality disorder and is brought about as a defense mechanism to protect their grandiose ideals about themselves. Cluster C disorders, including avoidant, dependant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders are characterized by fearful and anxious behaviors, as well as avoidance of social situations and feelings of loss of control (Frances, 1999). Typical Axis I co-morbid diagnosis are: social phobias, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder, myocardial infraction, and obsessive compulsive disorder. Treatment- (Dingfelder, 2004) Individuals at this end of the continuum commit rape, murder, and genocide. Will a person afflicted with antisocial personality disorder start at the lease serious end of the continuum and move to the far extreme? Recovery Conclusion Works Cited Barker, R. L. (1995). The Social Work Dictionary. In R. L. Barker, The Social Work Dictionary (p. 104). New York, New York: NASW Press. This source is reviewed and published by the NASW press, a division of the National Association of Social Workers, which is a leading scholarly press in social science research field. The information used gives a broad and comprehensive definition of the role that a personality plays in the life of an individual. This definition of personality and personality traits was chosen because due to its association with social work and because of its encompassing definition. This definition is used as a contrast point for the explanation of personality disorders. Dingfelder, S. (2004). Treatment for the Untreatable. Monitor on Psychology , Vol 35, No. 3, p. 46-48. This article, found in a peer reviewed scholarly journal, discusses the effectiveness of treatment for personality disorders. It states that many practitioners have had difficulty in treating personality disorders, which continue to present a pervasive and persistent pattern of dysfunction despite many treatment methods. It also discusses some effective treatment options and the hope for recovery from personality disorders. Frances, A. M. (1999). Your Mental Health: A Laymans Guide to the Psychiatrists Bible . In A. M. Frances, Your Mental Health: A Laymans Guide to the Psychiatrists Bible . New York: Scribner. Written by one of the authors of the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, this book provides general information about diagnosis of personality disorders and other mental health problems. It gives more detailed information on the cluster groupings (A, B, and C) for personality disorders than the DSM-IV Made Easy, as sited below. It also gives descriptive character traits that are associated with each of the personality disorders and discusses Axis I co-morbid diagnosis that are often found with personality disorders. James Morrison, M. (2006). The DSM-IV Made Easy. In M. James Morriosn, The DSM-IV Made Easy (pp. 461-495). New York: Guildford Publications, Inc. This book, containing information released in the DSM-IV, released by the American Psychological Association, is a stripped down, simplified version of the original DSM_IV. It provided detailed information on each personality disorder as well as diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. It also provides classification information and Axis diagnosis. The information in the source is considered to be extremely accurate and is therefore used to give a thorough and comprehensive information in relation to each personality disorder. Mayo Clinic. (2010, April 6). Personality Disorders. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/personality-disorders/DS00562 This source, written by the psychological staff at the Mayo Clinic, is retrievable online. The Mayo Clinic, an internationally renowned medical practice and research group, has given a general overview of personality disorders and discussed some treatment options that are available for the disorders. The information for treatment is not found in the above references, and the idea of using psychotherapy and medication to treat personality disorders is discussed. Women Discrimination In Business: Walmarts Case Women Discrimination In Business: Walmarts Case Ethics has consistently been a part of our society. It has continuously played a crucial role whether in the professional world or in our normal daily lives. According to the well known sociologist Raymond Baumhart, ethics consists of the guidelines based on the basis of what is right and wrong and people are expected to follow the right path. A few examples such as honesty, trust and equality fall under ethical behavior and it is required in order for all of us to have a peaceful environment. (Baumhart, 1987) Importance of ethics in the business world Ethics is equally essential in the business world because it highlights the responsibilities, the principles and the standards that business people along with its organization should follow permanently. Any business organization that lacks or ignores the ethical principles is expected to fail and may harm the companys image in several ways. For example unethical behavior such as employees coming to work late frequently will reduce the productivity level for the company and this may also intervene with their profit which for many firms is the sole purpose. It is the top management levels duty to ensure that all the current working employees in their company are aware of the ethical guidelines regarding acceptable behavior in order to prevent acts such cheating at work, socializing at some networking site rather than giving priority to your work, discriminating against an employee etc. Ethics is also considered one of the corporate social responsibilities along with economic, legal and philanthropic and they should be considered majorly important. It should be dealt with seriousness because it covers human resource issues which refer to discrimination at workplace and it is extremely vital for the managers at top level to not differentiate between their employees based on how they appear or any other reason for that matter. Fairness is another part where the managers have to make sure that they are treating their employees with equality without any biased decisions taking place. Besides these reasons there are many more which just proves the point that ethics is really important for management to succeed in achieving their goals. Women Discrimination Gender Discrimination Discrimination in todays world can be defined as the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favour of or against, a person or a thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit. (Dictionary.com, 2010). Discriminatory behaviours are of many different kinds but they mainly entail some form of exclusion or rejection. One form of discrimination that has been seen from generations till today is gender discrimination where either of the sex is considered weaker than the other. Women Discrimination in society In most societies and developed countries like the U.S. girls are usually given the freedom and encouraged to create their own lifestyle, since childhood. They are made to believe in themselves and that they can be as successful as boys in every work of life. However, the case is not the same for girls from other societies which are mostly from developing countries. They are brought up to believe the opposite where they are constantly reminded of the things they are not allowed to do. In most of the developing countries sons are regarded as insurance and hence their birth is celebrated with great joy. Whereas, when a girl is born she is considered as another expense and liability for the family. Since childhood, they are trained to do household activities and stay indoors, isolating them from the rest of the world. In some parts of India, a tradition prevails to greet the family of newborn girl by saying The servant of your household has been born. Women from such societies face issu es like emotional and physical abuse, inferiority, having their families and society limit their opportunities and restricting them from living life up to their full potential. Discrimination against women is a very demoralizing reality that still exists resulting in millions of individual tragedies. Studies show that a countrys attitude towards women is directly proportional to its social and economic progress i.e. if one part of the country gets affected then the result of the affect is suffered by the whole country as well. Sadly, women fall weak and are not able to defend themselves in situations where they are being discriminated. For example many women have to face problems like dowry, negligence, infanticide and sex-selective abortion, physical abuse and labour and sex trafficking (Mullins, 2010). Gender lines are drawn early in womens life and they face exclusions from childhood and continue facing it through out their adulthood as well. This perspective of women and false belief that women do not belong in the high corporate world has risen as a result of women discrimination. There has, over time been a stereotype thinking that women are only suitable for restricted professions like teaching or best suited to be housewives. Studies show that during elementary school teachers give more attention and importance to boys in Maths and Science while girls are paid attention by teachers in subjects like Language and Art. This is because Maths and Science subjects are more academically challenging and to be taken in the field of medicine, engineering and architecture which are considered to be male professions. Studies also show that girls in middle and high school are discouraged to participate in extracurricular activities like sports or join debate clubs. Instead, they are encou raged to participate in after school volunteer work, social programs and more inert activities. Also, when making career choices, girls are pestered by parents into pursuing clichÃ ©d female-oriented professions like teaching, nursing, care giving, retail and office administration. Studies carried by the Department of Labour 2007 statistics show that more women are starting businesses than men, more women are in the employees than men, and the majority of degree-holders are now women and yet they are only still dominating fields and industries that are considered suitable for female (Wolfe, 2009) Women discrimination is not always seen in developing countries alone but can also be noticed in developed countries. For example, one of the largest sex discrimination case seen in the history on the U.S. is the law suit filed against Wal-Mart. This suit was filed in the year 2001 by six female employees and by April 2010 it was reported to include more than a million females costing the retailer billions in damages. The women who filed the case claimed that they faced systematic discrimination at work. The Wal-Mart industry It is an American retailing industry founded by Sam Walton in1962 when he launched its first branch in Arkansas. His main strategy which found him early success in his life was to keep prices relatively low which lead him to earn a ranking as the richest man during the 1980s. According to the Forbes magazine, it became the worlds largest corporation by revenue. Walmarts women discrimination case Wal-Mart is being criticized for paying its female employees less than its male employees and also provide smaller salary raises to women and fewer promotions. It was reported that women at Wal-Mart were being steered away from management positions into lower-level jobs without much possible chances of progress like cashier jobs. Moreover, a woman who came looking for a job opportunity as a manager was reported to be told that she was not qualified for the management position as she was not able to stack 50 pound bags of dog food. It was also reported by The New York Times that around 33% of the women at Wal-Mart are companys managers whereas the rest 65% consist of women working as hourly employees. Wal-Mart was account to be biased towards males (Goudreau, 2010). Wal-Mart has around 700,000 working women that form its back bone and make it one of the largest private sector employers of women in the U.S. However, these employees face discrimination at work on advancement opportunities, job assignments and receive unequal pay. This discrimination towards women has been seen in all levels of the company i.e. from hourly working employees to senior management. Women earn 40cents less than what they should be earning equal to the other hourly male employees even though they have longer seniority and higher merit ratings than their male co-workers. A woman manager earns around $5,000 per year less compared to a male manager who earns $23,175 per year. Women executives also do not find themselves safe from discrimination at Wal-Mart. Women face systematic denial of advancement as men dominate the management ranks. They are stuck in the low paying jobs consisting of 92% cashiers and 76% sales associate. Wal-Marts competitors in the past have had more women managers than men compared to Wal-Mart. (UFCW, 2010). Walmarts case from Kants perspective Wal-Marts case casts light upon the ethical considerations of women discrimination in the work environment. Whether it is illegal is still under trial, however, it is clearly an ethical issue. Businesses often face such ethical issues which occur due to many reasons even if they are unintentional. The market fluctuations, competition and profit-making orientation lead business owners and managers into behaving unethically without conspicuous intentions. The issue of women discrimination can be analysed and evaluated using ethical theory. Ethical theory is generally based upon moral philosophy and may be classified on many different dimensions, however, there are several basic types of moral philosophy which are used in business ethics, such as egoism, utilitarianism, deontology, rights and relativism (Bartlett, 2003: 224). Egoism and Utilitarianism are examples of consequentialist philosophies whereas, deontological approaches such as that of Immanuel Kant are an example of non-consequentialist philosophies. Kants theories are often associated with the duties, moral rights and respect of an individual. His theories say that each person has both the right to expect to be treated according to universal moral laws and the corresponding duty to behave according to that law (Bartlett, 2003: 224). Kants theory proposes a categorical imperative which is the particular moral law according to which people should act. It states that one should act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal law of nature (Kant, cited in Bartlett, 2003: 224). This means that an action can be set as a categorical imperative making it a universal law and applying it to the maximum population to see what the result of that action would be if it became common behavior of the world. The morality of an action can be judged by applying the deontological approach which considers the rights, duties, truth and respect of an individual according to universal moral principles. It focuses on doing the right thing. Sex discrimination or discrimination of women in particular can be evaluated using Kants theory. Applying the theory, the categorical imperative or the universal rule can be set as It is okay to discriminate women in business practices. If this rule is applied universally, the effect of this action on the society or the whole world would be highly negative. Firstly, men would continue to view women as the weaker sex due to which they will not give them opportunities to work at all. If women dont work they will have low motivation and high emotional stress which can affect their family lives. If all families became unhappy and stressed the whole society will be affected and may not prosper. Secondly, the household incomes would decrease drastically as women will not be able to support their husbands. Furthermore, if women will have no career opportunities, they will stop their education and the literacy rate would go down. Labour supply in the market would decrease which would lead to a surplus in labour demand thus, creating a need for high wages and salaries which can become a major issue with employers. The overall employment rate would also decrease; affecting the world economy. The result of discriminating women and discouraging their participation in work practices universally can cause serious harm to the society and the whole world overall. It questions womens rights and respect along with mans duty towards equality and fairness in the world. Thus, the universal rule will be contradicted and negated leading to the conclusion that, as analyzed through this theory and the deontological approach, sex discrimination is unethical. Walmarts perspective On the contrary, when considering the case from Walmarts perspective, it is important to understand that it is the senior managements duty and responsibility to take every measure to ensure they assign jobs to employees who are most suited to do them and hold the capabilities required to accomplish the job. For example, Walmart has been criticised for refusing one woman a management position because she was unable to stack 50-pound bags of dog food hence, unqualified for the job. While many have protested against this act, it must be highlighted that there has been always a stereotype image of women as being the weaker sex and this incident helps illustrate that. Walmart managers understand that the business involves tasks that cannot be easily accomplished by women as compared to men. Also, giving women tedious jobs might be considered unethical by some customers and this could affect Walmarts reputation as being harsh towards women and making them do jobs they are not fit for. More over, Walmart may have been scandalised by its competitors who are looking for ways to show the company in a negative light as it is successful and poses serious threat to smaller businesses who are unable to compete on the basis of price due to the exceptional low prices Walmart provides hence, looking for other methods of causing damage to their competitor. Target Corporation and its ethical practices One of the greatest competitions faced by Walmart is from Target Corporation; after Walmart, Target is the second largest discount retailer in the United States. Walmart and Target do business in quiet similar manner and have both very wide-ranging ethical and environmental policies in place. However in terms of practices, Walmart has solicited much more criticism than Target for breaching its ethical policies, the company has poor employment benefits, exerts pressure on suppliers, eliminates waste into the environment and as discussed earlier, practices gender discrimination to great extent. However, Target refuses to tolerate workplace discrimination and tries to create an environment in which everyone recognizes the value of diversity. According to national statistics the average company across the United States employs a staff that consists of forty-eight percent women; fifty-nine percent of Targets workforce is women. In part with this statistic and the treatment of their female employees, Target has been honored as an organization with multiple national awards recognizing their commitment to gender diversity. In 2005, Target was named one of the Top 30 Companies for Executive Women, by the National Association for Female Executives. As well as in 2004, they were named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers, by the magazine, Working Mother. Therefore similar to Target, Walmart should also adopt policies against gender discrimination to avoid lawsuits which spoils the image of the company.