Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Low Budget Airline Jetstar Asia Airways Tourism Essay Essays

The Low Budget Airline Jetstar Asia Airways Tourism Essay Essays The Low Budget Airline Jetstar Asia Airways Tourism Essay Paper The Low Budget Airline Jetstar Asia Airways Tourism Essay Paper Jetstar Asia Airways is a low-priced budget air hose operating in the Southeast Asiatic part. It is founded by its female parent company Australia s Qantas Airways in 2003. Unlike Jetstar in Australia, Jetstar Asia is bulk Singapore in which a Singapore investing company, Temasek Holdings Limited holds 19 per cent of portions, two Singaporean business communities possess 32 per centum, and the staying 49 per cent of portions belongs to Qantas Group. The company is known as an air hose to offer low menus, all twenty-four hours and every twenty-four hours to South East Asia clients. It has received several valuable awards, such as Best Brand Experience for Low Cost Carrier ( 2006 ) , Best Low Cost Airline, Southeast Asia and Asia ( 2006, 2008 ) , Top 10 Airlines by Passenger Carriage ( 2006, 2007 ) , Best Asiatic Low-Cost Carrier ( 2006, 2007 ) . The first Jetstar Asia Airways flight took off for Hong Kong on December 13, 2004. Jetstar Asia and Valuair Airways Limited were merged on July 22, 2005 ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . With a fleet of seven A320 aircrafts, Jetstar Asia now offers up to 126 hebdomadal flights from Singapore to 17 finishs in 10 Asiatic states. It is be aftering to increase capacity by more three A320 aircrafts by early following twelvemonth and add finishs in India and China. This selling survey aims to supply the Jetstar Asia Airways current selling environment. It will analyze SWOT every bit good as PESTEL to do clearly internal and external selling environment. The study besides discuss about the current market program of Jetstar Asia Airways. From the audit procedure, recommendations will come out for bettering Jetstar Asia Airways selling public presentation in bing competitory air power environment. II. Background Today, planetary air power industry has been divided into three major classs ( Lelieur, 2003 ) . The first class consists of big web bearers, such as United Airlines, American Airlines, and Delta in the United States ; Air France, British Airway, Lufthansa in Europe. The 2nd 1 is the in-between size bearers such as KLM and SAS in Europe. The concluding class is the low cost bearers, such as Jet Blue, Westjet in North America ; Virgin Blue and Australian Airlines in Australia ; Ryanair, EasyJet, and Air Berlin in Europe ; Air Asia, Oasis Hong Kong Airline, Jetsatr Asia Airway, and Tiger Airway in Asia Pacific. Harmonizing to Weiss ( 2008, p.84 ) , Low-cost bearers, besides known as a no frills or price reduction air hoses, offers low menus in exchange for extinguishing many traditional riders services. These air hoses have a lower cost constructions than rivals. They frequently operate a individual rider category and fleet, cut downing preparation and service costs . In recent old ages, the low-priced bearers ( LLCs ) phenomenon has become more popular in air power industry. The low cost air hose concern has experienced surprising growing in term of riders carried and aircraft ordered. LLCs are likely to maintain their monetary value down exhaustively on-line engagement every bit good as supplying the minimal degree of onboard services. They can be seen as a new large success in the universe air hose industry. Harmonizing to OAG s Quarterly Airline Traffic Statistics ( 2007 ) , low cost international flights have increased 20 % twelvemonth by twelvemonth. Asia Pacific witnessed a dramatic growing in low cost sector, with an addition from 3,900 flights and 600,000 seats in 2001 to 61,000 flights and 9.2 million seats in 2007 ( Abacus, 2008 ) . The Asia Pacific low cost market now has accounted for 12 % of all flights and all seats. Many Asiatic states such as Singapore, Malaysia, India has opened up LCCs to attractive a big figure of riders. As an avowal about Jetstar Airways chance, Geoff Dixon, CEO of Qantas Airways Ltd said: We re really confident about the timing of the launch of this air hose. I do nt cognize where other air hoses will stop up but I can guarantee you Jetstar Asia will be about in four old ages clip and will be profitable, so Temasek and our other investors can be confident. ( 2004 ) . Jetstar Asia has announced its gross increases 20 % for the twelvemonth ended 31 March 2008 ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . These proves that low menus has become attract more travelers. The outlook of Jetstar Asia Airways about the universe s largest possible air power market is coming true. 2.2 PEST analysis Plague analysis is a common tool for analyzing an administration s macro-environment to place those factors that might increase the possible for crisis. ( Elliott, Swartz and Herbane, 2002 ) . These include political, economic, societal and technological factors and the analysis examines the impact of each of them on the concern. 2.2.1 Political factors On the August 09, 1965, Singapore left Malaysia Federation and became crowned head, democratic and independent state. In 1967, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand established the Association of Southeast Asiatic Nations ( Asnic, neodymium ) . From 1970 Singapore is considered as a political stableness state. It has become the comfortable state with a widespread web of trading links. So far, Singapore political stableness has leaded to a high rate of economic growing. As one of Asia most stable economic sciences, many Singapore companies have developed good. Singapore economic has been developing services industries such as wealth direction and touristry, air power industry. Singaporean air hose industry plays a cardinal function in Singaporean economic system. It now includes mainstream Singapore Airlines and two low cost air hoses Tiger Airways and Jetstar Asia Airways. However, September 11th terrorist onslaught event in United States caused important fal ling in going. Besides, the political instability in South East Asia part, such as Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia influenced negatively on air power industry in Asia countries. 2.2.2 Economic factors The economic environment consists of factors that affect consumer buying power and disbursement forms . ( Kotler and Armstrong, 2009, p103 ) . These undermentioned analyses will demo how economic factors have an consequence on air power industry. In recent old ages, planetary economic crisis has pushed the trade-service dependent states into worst recession. The universe travel market has besides been affected in this crisis. Harmonizing to International Air Transport Association, due to economic recession, the planetary rider traffic will diminish by 3 % in 2009 and non turning above 4 % until 2011 ( IATA, 2008 ) . Another major factor effects strongly on air hose market, particularly budget air hoses, that is the addition in fuel monetary value. From 2004, the oil monetary value rush was a consequence of three chief factors: increased demand, a little planetary surplus of production capableness, and the fright of supply break. The fuel cost addition caused of 36 % rise of air hose operating costs in 2008. The deathly combination of falling demand and high oil monetary values made a dip of air power industry s profitableness, about losingss of US $ 10.4 billion in 2008. At the same twelvemonth, Asia Pacific air hose industry incurred losingss US $ 300 million ( IATA, 2009 ) . 2.2.3 Social factors Tendencies in societal factors are important constituent of the PEST analysis for air hose industry. Firstly, some factors such as advanced medical commissariats and low ratio at birth have allowed people to populate longer. The mean age of the population has been increasing steadily. Therefore, the merchandises that air hoses offer refering to older and handicapped riders who need aid at airdromes. Besides, traditional household construction has been altering in today modern society. The addition of divorce rate every bit good as figure of one-parent household has become modern-day tendency that travel industry has to make to suit. They can be promotional and merchandise planning policies, which offer to those who are singles or one-parent household. Furthermore, the alterations in the occupation market have impacts for air hose selling policies. Due to work force per unit areas, executives frequently have to do a day-return trip alternatively of two yearss. This has become more of import for short-haul markets. 2.2.4 Technology factors As an advanced engineering, Internet now plays an of import function in air hoses industry. All air hoses have web sites that allow clients to book air ticket online. In doing reserve, clients can besides choose their place. Use of cyberspace in air power industry brings benefits for both air hoses and riders based on cost economy. The application of Simplifying the Business ( StB ) undertaking in about air hoses brings non merely convenience to consumers but besides lower costs to air hoses industry. The undertaking includes electronic-ticketing, Common-Use Self-Service booths, and bar-coded embarkation base on ballss ( BCBP ) . BCBP can be accessed through web sites, booth, and a check-in desk. It will extinguish magnetic-stripe embarkation base on ballss in close hereafter. With PEST analysis as above, selling environment of Jetstar Asia Airways has merely evaluated to see how the company operates in the today altering environment. III. External analysis 1. Micro-environment ( app 1,200 words ) Description of the market Rivals analysis Market size, location, growing and chances Government engagement in the market place 2. Macro-environment 2.1 SWOT analysis A SWOT analysis is an in-depth scrutiny of cardinal factors that are internal ( strengths and failings ) and external ( chances and menaces ) to a concern ( Pinson, 2008, p.33 ) . Strengths are internal capablenesss that may assist a company make its objects. Failings are internal restrictions that may interfere with a company s ability to accomplish its objects. Opportunities are external factors that the company may be able to work to its advantages. Menaces are current external factors that may dispute the company s public presentation. ( Kotler and Armstrong, 2009, p.78 ) . SWOT analysis helps a concern to concentrate on those countries that present the greatest chances and those competences in which it is strongest. That concern look into ways to decrease its failings, develop schemes to get the better of menaces. The undermentioned analysis focuses on Jetstar Asia s SWOT. SWOT ANALYSIS OF JETSTAR ASIA AIRWAYS Internal Strengths Failings Flexible ticket monetary value construction Growth in market portion One type of aircraft Performance Narrow flight finishs. Limited fleet. External Opportunities Menaces Strengthen competitory capableness. Addition in short-haul traveling. Growth in Singapore touristry Addition of fuel monetary value Unpredictable catastrophe factors Swine grippe spread Customers belief. 2.1.1 Strengths Flexible ticket monetary value construction: Jetstar Asia Airways has applied flexible ticket monetary value construction that allows clients can take any sort of ticket, depending on clients demand. Customers can buy which ticket with or without baggage. By this application, Jetstar Asia Airways desires to run into clients diversified demands. Growth in market portion: The Company is traveling to establish its first service into China on December 16, 2009 ( BusinessWeek, 2009 ) . After that, it will offer new finish in India. Furthermore, with 3 extra A320 aircrafts, it will spread out its current capacity by 46 per cent by establishing twice daily services on the Singapore-Phuket path. One type of aircraft: Thankss to working one type of aircraft Airbus A320- Jetstar Asia Airways can salvage cost of fuel ingestion, cost of keeping other aircrafts and cut down cost of staff preparation, taking to take down operation cost. As a consequence, Jetstar Asia Airways can do up competitory advantage to entice more clients by offering low ticket monetary value. Performance: One of the most of import factors impacting clients pick in air hose industry is on-time public presentation. Understand this ; Jetstar has used the computerised Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System ( ACARS ) to guarantee the truth of going clip and arrival clip. In 2008 and 2009, Jetstar s on-time public presentation ever achieved from 92 % to 98 % ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . 2.1.2 Failings Narrow flight finishs: So far, Jetstar Asia Airways has merely exploited its aeronautic paths to 17 finishs across 10 states in Asia Pacific ( Jetstar, neodymium ) . Meanwhile, Tiger Airways has runing with 27 finishs, and Asia Airways has 50 finishs. This can be seen failings of Jetstar Asia in air power competition to achieve clients. Limited fleet: Due to the limited fleet of seven A320 aircrafts, Jetstar Asia Airways has some troubles in spread outing its market portion to new finishs. 2.1.3 Opportunities Jetstar Asia Airways has focused on non merely single riders but besides concern travelers. It has set up several sorts of privilege services for concern travelers to increase figure of riders twelvemonth by twelvemonth. From merely 50 houses in 2004, now Jetstar has 400 corporations going with it ( Baoying, 2009 ) . More and more concerns, even transnational companies, are likely to take low cost air hoses to salvage their concern cost that create possible low cost market for Jetstar Asia Airways and other air hoses. Besides, tendency of short-haul traveling is increasing in figure of Asiatic tourers ; alternatively of long-haul vacations because it enables Asiatic people travel more on a regular basis in twelvemonth. Concentrating on these topics, Jetstar Asia will catch more chances to spread out its market portion. In add-on to this, in Singapore, two incorporate resorts the Marina Bay Sands and Resorts World Sentosa will be opened in 2010. At that clip, figure of traveler visi ts Singapore will increase dramatically. There will be about 15 million visitants coming to Singapore ( integratedresort, neodymium ) . Such general tendencies as mentioned above will convey chance for Singapore air hose industry, including budget air hoses and mainstream air hoses. 2.1.4 Menaces The addition in fuel monetary value over the past few old ages has bad affected on sustainable growing of Jetstar Asia Airways and air power industry. This can be seen an inexplicit menaces to profitableness of air hoses. Furthermore, the spread swine grippe in many parts has affected significantly on air hose going due to the dramatic lessening of travelers. Unpredictable accidents that come from bad conditions or proficient jobs are besides menaces to air hoses. Passengers may waver in taking between budget air hoses and mainstream air hoses because of the safety in budget air hoses. This menace may veto impact on gross revenues of Jetstar Asia. Recommendation Presents, Asian air hoses industry is acquiring more ferociously competitory between budget air hoses and traditional full services air hoses. Furthermore, competition among the outgrowth of Asiatic budget air hoses, such as Air Asia, Tiger Airways and Jetstar Asia has besides become intensely. In order to better the company s selling public presentation, we suggest some recommendations based on SWOT analysis above and consequences collected from an interview with people who are refering about air hoses market. First, we suggest Jetstar Asia should plan a client driven selling scheme to place its mark market. Its market cleavage includes clients those who normally travel on short draw trips and can non afford mean international tickets. Then the company should construct profitable client relationships based on topics: travelers for leisure, business communities and pupils. Understanding who its clients are, the company will construct client relationship to fulfill their demands. In add-on to this, the consequences from questioning reflect the company s convenience and services are non excessively high, merely over 50 % of respondents think that it is just. In order to capture value from clients and ain client trueness, in its selling schemes, the company needs to construct the right relationship with right clients and make client delectation. The company should beef up clients belief that lower monetary value does non intend bad services. Besides, Jetstar Asia should develop effectual advertisement scheme to consolidate their trade name name through mass media. Furthermore, limited fleet and flight finishs caused limitation in enlargement market place every bit good as pulling mark clients. Therefore, we recommend the company to use competitory schemes. The company should transport out non merely protect its current market portions but besides increase it farther. Books Weiss, J.W. ( 2008 ) Business Ethical motives: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach, Cengage Learning, New York. Lelieur, I. ( 2003 ) Law and policy of significant ownership and effectual control of air hoses Prospects for alteration, Ashgate Publishing, Hampshire. Pinson, L.J. ( 2008 ) Anatomy of a concern program: the bit-by-bit usher to constructing a concern and procuring your company hereafter, Out of your mindaˆÂ ¦and into the market place, California. Kotler, P and Amstrong, G ( 2009 ) Principles of Marketing, Pearson, New Jersey. A Elliott, D. , Swartz, E. and Herbane, B ( 2002 ) Business continuity direction: a crisis direction attack, Routledge, London Web sites Abacus ( 2008 ) The Year of the Resourceful A ; Enterprising Rat, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // BusinessWeek ( 2009 ) Jetstar Airways Pty Ltd, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // privcapId=10917341 A ; goback=.cps_1247149767187_1 Baoying, Ng. ( 2009 ) Jetstar Asia expands fleet and paths to maintain up with competition, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // integratedresort ( nd ) Singapore Integrated Resorts, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // jetstar ( neodymium ) News, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // # SinApr16b Asnic ( neodymium ) Singapore history, accessed September 06, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // IATA ( 2008 ) IATA Economic briefing-The impact of recession on air traffic volumes, accessed September 07, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // IATA ( 2009 ) Annual study 2009, accessed September 07, 2009, hypertext transfer protocol: // Primary Resource Interview We have conducted market research by an interview with clients of Jetstar Asia and non-clients at Changi Airport to happen replies so develop selling scheme for Jetstar Asia. We would be grateful if you could help our group by finishing our questionnaires, which will supply utile information to us. Personal information 1. Sexual activity: a-? Male a-? Female 2. Age scope: a-?18-25 a-? 26-30 a-? 31-40 a-? 41-50 a-? 51-60 3. Occupation: _______________ A. Questionnaires 1. Which air hose with do you normally wing? a-? Mainstream air hoses a-? Budget airlines a-? Never 2. Which budget air hose with do you normally wing? a-? Jetstar Asia a-? Tiger Airways a-? Air Asia a-? Others ____________ 3. What concerns you most when you think of taking the budget air hose? a-? Money a-? Service a-? Convenience a-? Others ____________ 4. Which beginning lead you know Jetstar Asia? a-? Newspapers a-? Internet a-? Friends a-? Others ____________ 5. What is the intent of your trip? a-? Leisure a-? Business a-? Study a-? Others 6. How would you rate Jetstar Asia in footings of service? a-? Poor a-? Fair a-? Good a-? Excellent 7. How would you rate Jetstar Asia in footings of convenience? a-? Poor a-? Fair a-? Good a-? Excellent 8. What do you believe about Jetstar Asia s ticket monetary value comparing to other budget air hoses? a-? High a-? Reasonable a-? Low Thank you really much for taking the clip to reply these inquiries. B. Answers from appraising Question 1: For this inquiry, the consequences show that riders of budget air hoses are lower than that of mainstream air hoses, 27 % compared to 69 % . It means that budget air power s market portion is little. 4 % of the respondents have neer been on plane. Question 2: Reacting this inquiry, outcomes indicate out that Jetstar Asia rank at 3rd place behind Tiger Airways and Air Asia, with 23 % whereas Tiger Airways and Air Asia are 31 % and 42 % severally. 4 % of the replies flew with other air hoses. It should be recommended that Jetstar Asia need more effectual selling scheme to heighten the competitory capacity. Question 3: The consequence illustrate that the most clients concern when they choose budget air hoses is salvaging money, with 69 % of the respondents. Service standards and convenient standards rank the 2nd and the 3rd pick, with 16 % and 13 % severally. 2 % of the replies chose budget air hoses chiefly because attach toing with friends. Question 4: 41 % of the replies show that they knew Jetstar Asia through Internet. Newspapers, Friends and Others are ordered by 27 % , 25 % and 7 % severally. Question 5: For intent of concern, 31 % of the respondents take this consequence. 44 % of the replies show that their trip for leisure. For analyzing intent is 19 % , other intent is 6 % , such as wellness attention, sing old friends. Therefore, Jetstar Asia should concentrate on mark clients who are travelers in order to hike up its gross revenues. Besides it should pay attending to possible client section, including business communities and pupils. Question 6: In term of services, 53 % of respondents explained that they considered Jetstar Asia s services are sensible and acceptable. In contrast, 8 % of interviewees admitted poverty of service. Good standards and first-class standards are appraised by 25 % and 14 % severally. Question 7: Similarly, 51 % of interviewees illustrated that they evaluated convenience is just. 23 % of the replies think that convenience offered by Jetstar Asia is good whilst 15 % of them considered it as first-class. Staying 11 % of respondents are non pleased with Jetstar Asia convenience as they think it is hapless. Question 8: What do you believe about ticket monetary value of Jetstar Asia comparing to other budget air hoses? 64 % of them think that ticket monetary value offered by Jetstar Asia is sensible. 29 % of them believe that is low. Merely 7 % of the replies claim its monetary value is high.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The 411 on Numeronyms

The 411 on Numeronyms The 411 on Numeronyms The 411 on Numeronyms By Mark Nichol Numerals are often used in numeronyms: in combination with other numerals and with letters to represent a word, phrase, or concept. This post loosens the definition of numeronym to also include a numeral without one or more accompanying letters and with or without other symbols. Ordinal numbers can represent something, as when we speak, for example, of a â€Å"third† in reference to an additional person who joins two people or when we refer, for example, to â€Å"the 25th† to denote a certain day of the month, but the following terms, which include cardinal numbers, represent more than the sum of their parts, too. The number 101, used in combination with a word representing a topic, is used to imply that a piece of knowledge under discussion is elementary, as if it were equivalent to the content of an introductory college course. (Such courses are often numbered 101 in a three-digit designation system.) For example, the principle of supply and demand might be said to be â€Å"Economics 101,† meaning it is easy to understand. A 180 is a half turn and a 360 is a full turn, representing the number of degrees in a circle; numbers larger than 360 may appear in reference to sports such as skating or diving in which participants may turn more than one full revolution; 180 may also refer figuratively to someone reversing one’s position on an issue. The abbreviations WWI and WWII stand for â€Å"World War I† and â€Å"World War II† (and there is also the hypothetical World War III, or WWIII); they are sometimes represented with Arabic numerals, though Roman numerals are the conventional treatment. Y2K is an abbreviation for â€Å"year 2000,† pertaining to the (largely unfounded) concern late in the twentieth century that a fundamental programming flaw would, at the turn of the century, cause catastrophic breakdowns in information processing, leading to serious repercussions throughout the civilized world. Another term stemming from business is 24/7, referring to the number of hours in a day and the number of days in a week to denote incessant attention to something. (The term is also extended to 24/7/365 to refer to the number of days in the year as well.) Guns are often referred to simply by their caliber: for example, .22, .357, and .45 refer to the diameter of the bullets used in a particular firearm. 3D is an abbreviation for â€Å"three-dimensional,† pertaining to images and films with this feature. Abbreviations for television programs include TW3 for That Was the Week That Was, a satirical comedy program on the United Kingdom’s BBC network during the early 1960s, and MST3K for Mystery Science Theater 3000, a late-twentieth-century American program that poked fun at mediocre low-budget films. Meanwhile W3 is an abbreviation for â€Å"World Wide Web,† which is now generally abbreviated to web. To get the 411 on something is to obtain information; 411 is the telephone number for directory assistance, which provides phone numbers for people who want to contact a person or an organization but do not have the entity’s number. (This number is sometimes styled 4-1-1.) Telephone area codes are often employed as shorthand to refer to geographical regions, as in the use of â€Å"the 415† to represent San Francisco and its environs. 401(k) refers to a specific pension account defined in that section of the Internal Revenue Service tax code. Similarly, a tax-exempt nonprofit organization is referred to as a 501(c)(3), a label that pertains to the corresponding section of the IRS tax code. 5K, 10K, and so on are abbreviations referring to footraces of 5,000 and 10,000 meters, respectively, as well as longer events; K stands for kilo-, a prefix meaning â€Å"one thousand.† Shorter races held on tracks (and swim events) may be called, for example, â€Å"the 400,† referring to a 400-meter dash or another race of that length. Text-speak takes advantage of numeronyms to reduce the number of characters necessary to express a word: Gr8, for example, represents great, and l8r is equivalent to later. Related usage includes computer terms that are abbreviated, for example, from localization to l10n. (The numeronym consists of the first and last letters of the word interrupted by a number representing how many intervening letters are missing.) A similar system is leetspeak (leet derives from elite to acknowledge that those who know the system are privileged to do so in comparison to the ignorant masses), in which numerals replace similarly shaped letters, such as in n00b, which represents a misspelling and abbreviation of newbie (meaning â€Å"novice†). G8 and G20 refer to international political forums consisting of the respective number of participant nations; G stands for group in designations such as â€Å"Group of 8.† K9 is an abbreviation for canine because it is pronounced the same as the word for dogs and other doglike animals; it is employed in the context of dogs used in law enforcement. Also pertaining to law enforcement is the ten-code, a system of numerical codes beginning with 10 that represent words and ideas; the most familiar to laypeople is 10-4, meaning â€Å"understood.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Has vs. Had7 Tips for Writing a Film Review5 Keys to Better Sentence Flow

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Third Writing Assignment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Third Writing Assignment - Essay Example Other than the domestic powers, the President also has broad rights over foreign policy. He can appoint ambassadors. The president with the aid of the Secretary of the State can maintain all contact with foreign powers. In many cases, the president can personally be present in Summit conferences where all heads of state assemble for direct consultation. For instance, President Woodrow Wilson represented his country in the Paris peace conference after WWII was over. Since then, US Presidents regularly meet with world leaders for discussion of economic and political matters to reach bilateral and multilateral agreements. The President’s job is also to protect the Americans abroad and look after the foreign nationals in America. The President has the right to approve new nations and government, and enter into treaties with other nations which is however subject to approval from two-third of the Senate. The President also has the right to enter into â€Å"executive agreementsâ₠¬  with other nations which do not need approval from the Senate. The President also acts as the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces since only with power over the army he can add credibility to his foreign policies. He has the power to decide when to intervene abroad. For instance, US Presidents have intervened during wars in Korea and Vietnam by deploying troops as required (â€Å"Presidential Powers†; Watts, 99). The power of the Congress is concerned with collection of taxes, duties, excises and imports. The Congress also allocates funds for the defence and general welfare of the country. According to the US constitution, the Congress has the power to frame foreign policies. The laws passed by the Congress, or the treaties and nominations that the Senate agrees can have impact on the country’s interaction with other nations. Although the president has the right to establish and implement foreign policies, it is the Congress who has the right to approve fund

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Health Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Health - Article Example Some, with adequate and early therapy, are able to attend regular classes in school and secure avenues of employment afterwards albeit somewhat limited. Though autism is incurable and usually results in social isolation to varying degrees, various forms of treatment have proven to make a decidedly positive impact in the way autistics interact with others. Autism is the most prevalent developmental disorder affecting one in every 166 children (â€Å"How Common?†, 2006). Symptoms of the disorder can be generally described as the incapability to adequately interact socially along with a disinterested demeanor. It is an abnormality in the structure of the brain caused by genetic predispositions or from damage occurring during the development phase (Bryson & Smith, 1998). The severity of autism varies widely among individuals as does its related symptoms but there are certain aspects relating to social interaction shared by all with the disorder. Avoiding direct eye contact, distinctive body posturing and facial expressions as well as other nonverbal communication deficiencies are a common trait. Autistic children seldom associate with those of their own age-group as well as showing a general disinterest in interacting with any other people. They also do not demonstrate empathy because they lack the understanding of another personà ¢â‚¬â„¢s sorrow or pain. Deficiencies in communication skills can include symptoms such as a delay in speaking development or not being able to speak at all. About half of those with autism never learn to talk. Well-designed and personalized programs targeted to manage an autistic person’s biological disorder have proven to take full advantage of their learning potential thus lessening the effects of autism. The objective of treatment is to enhance the child’s language and social development and to curb behaviors which impede the child’s learning capabilities. A cure is not possible because autism is a chronic cognitive

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Cocoa solids Essay Example for Free

Cocoa solids Essay Chocolate! The name brings memories of a sugary and scrumptious sweet in your mouth. Each and every person in the world, whatever be his age or his sex, loves the delicious sin. In fact, chocolate is one of the most preferred gifts on every occasion, birthday or anniversary, Valentine’s Day or Christmas, wedding or farewell. Whether it is your wife or your boyfriend, your kids or your in-laws, you can present chocolates to almost everyone. While eating a chocolate, have you ever thought how it came into being? If you are ignorant about the origin of chocolate till date, use the interesting information on its background, given below. History of Chocolate The oldest records related to chocolates date back to somewhere around 1500-2000 BC. The high rainfall, soaring temperatures and great humidity of Central American rain forests created the perfect climate for the cultivation of the Cacao Tree. During that time, the Mayan civilization used to flourish in that region. Mayan people worshipped Cacao Tree, believing it to be of divine origin. They also used to roasted and pounded seeds of the tree, with maize and Capsicum (Chilli) peppers, to brew a spicy, bitter sweet drink. The drink was consumed either in ceremonies or in the homes of the wealthy and religious elite. It is said that the word ‘Cacao’ was corrupted by the early European explorers and turned into Cocoa. Even the Aztecs, of Central Mexico, are believed to have acquired the beans through trade and/or the spoils of war. In fact, Cacao beans were considered to be so prized by Aztecs that they started using it as a type of currency. They also made a drink, similar to the one made by Mayans, and called it ‘Xocolatl’, the name which was later corrupted to Chocolat, by Spanish conquistadors. The further corruption of the word, which finally gave it its present form ’Chocolate’, was done by the English. Entry in Europe Xocolatl, or Chocolate, was brought to Europe by Cortez. It was here that sugar and vanilla were added to the Aztecs brew, to offset its spicy bitterness. The commercialization of chocolate started in Spain, where the first chocolate factories were opened. Spanish treasure fleets brought back dried fermented beans from the new world, roasting and grounding them to make chocolate powder. This powder was used to make European version of the ‘Aztec’ drink and then, exported to the other countries in Europe. Within a few years, Spain’s drink become popular throughout the continent and it was around 1520 that it came to England. However, it was only in the year 1657 that the first Chocolate House of England was opened, in London. The popularity of the drink led to a string of other Chocolate Houses. Since cocoa was so expensive, the houses started serving as elite clubs, where the wealthy and business community met to smoke a clay pipe of tobacco, conduct business and socialize over a cup of chocolate. It’s America Again Chocolate came to the place of its birth once again. This time, it was the English colonists who carried chocolate, along with coffee, with them to the colonies in North America. These colonies later consolidated into the United States of America and Canada. Despite the changes in the territorial boundaries, chocolate continued to be a favorite of all the Americans, of every age, sex, group, and so on. Till date, the status quo has not changed and hot chocolate is still one of the favorite drinks of the Americans. Modern Chocolate The chocolate of today, in the sold form, took its roots in England. It was around mid-1600, when English bakers started adding cocoa powder to cakes. Seeking to make chocolate drink smoother and more palatable, Johannes Van Houten, a Dutch chemist, invented a technique of extracting the bitter tasting fat (cocoa butter) from the roasted ground beans, in 1828. With this, he paved the way for the chocolate in its present form. It was in 1847 that solid chocolate, as we know of today, was made by Fry Sons of Bristol (England), by mixing sugar with cocoa powder and cocoa butter. The first milk chocolate was made in 1875, by Daniel Peters, a Swiss manufacturer, by mixing cocoa powder and cocoa butter with sugar and dried milk powder. The rest, as they say, is history! Today, chocolate is made across the globe and liked by almost every person in this world.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Search for Dostoyevsky in Crime and Punishment Essay -- Crime and

The Search for Dostoyevsky in Crime and Punishment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky who is known as a great novelist wrote timeless classics such as The Idiot, Crime and Punishment, and The Brothers Karamazov, was not only a novelist, but a good psychologist who uncovered the secret sides of the human beings in a very effective way. His novels also affected Freud, Nietzsche, and Joyce. However there is one point that is a mystery. Did Dostoyevsky really reflect his own feelings, especially his fears, into the characters of his novels?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fyodor was born in Moscow on October 30 in 1821 in Hospital for the poor, the second of seven children. His mother Mme Marya Feodorovna and father Dr. M. Andrey Dostoyevsky whose surname comes from a small village, Dostoevo, came from the Lithuanian nobility. Dr. Dostoyevsky’s father was a priest in Ukrainia who wanted his son to be a priest like him. However, Andrey ran away from home to become a doctor when he was fifteen. He was accepted to the Imperial Medical-Surgical Academy in 1809, and continued his career in various hospitals. Fyodor’s only elder brother Mikhail was born in 1820, one year earlier than Fyodor (Troyat 37).   They lived in a small apartment on the hospital grounds for a long time. When Fyodor reached the age of thirteen, Dr. Dostoyevsky became a nobleman, and moved to Darovoe where he bought a small land about 150 versts.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Dostoyevsky mentioned about his mother with a great love. According to him, she was a cheerful, warm and adorable person. He lost her mother in 1837 when he was about sixteen. His father, however, draws a contrast portrait with his mother. He suffered from headaches that affected his character deeply in a negative way. Althou... ...rform, and made him feel like a murderer. This is the fear of a lonely person which forced him to create his unique characters. Many times, I feel guilty as if I committed a murder.† F. M. Dostoyevsky Works Cited Conradi, Peter J.   Fyodor Dostoevsky.  Basingstoke : Macmillan , 1988. Dostoyevsky,   Fyodor.   Crime  and  Punishment. New York: The Modern Library, 1950. Frank,   Joseph.  Dostoyevsky The  Seeds  of  Revolt   18211849.  Princeton:   Princeton UP,  1976.   Frank,   Joseph.   Dostoyevsky The  Years   of   Ordeal   1850 - 1859.   Princeton:   Princeton UP,   1983.   Jones,   Malcolm.   Dostoyevsky   After   Bakhtin Readings   in   Dostoyevsky’s   Fantastic Realism.   Cambridge:   Cambridge UP,  1990. Simmons, Ernest J.   Dostoyevsky The making of a novelist.   London:   John Lehmann Ltd,  1950. Troyat, Henri.   Dostoyevsky. Istanbul: Cem Yay?nevi,  1973.        

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Atomic bomb Essay

Did the USA need to drop bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945? On the 6th of August 1945, the US dropped an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima,1ushering in the nuclear age. The bomb caused the deaths of over 100,000 people,2with the bulk of the destruction pertaining to innocent civilians. Three days later, the Americans repeated their action at Nagasaki. The aim of the US was not, however, to cause complete annihilation of the Japanese, but to seize the fierce nationalism within Japan, ending world war two. Arguably, this was achieved, with the Emperor Hirohito broadcasting their surrender on the 15th of August.3However, was the Americans use of nuclear warfare justified in their bid for world peace? President of the time Harry Truman stated, â€Å"I never lost any sleep over my decision (to drop the Atomic bomb)†, yet, Americans have since been subject to fierce revisionist denialism that there was not an over riding need to employ such a controversial tactic. By 1945 Japan was in ruins. America had continuously bombed strategic Japanese locations, and implemented a blockade that had dramatic effects on the nations civilians, suggesting that the Japanese were close to surrender without the implantation of the A bomb. Conversely, the US had witnessed the Japanese’s determination to fight to the bitter end , rather than surrender, and their failure to respond to the Potsdam declaration clearly illustrated this. Through analyzing the historical context in which this dramatic act of war occurred it is difficult to come to a sound judgment on the necessity of America’s actions. Due to the consequences that would have triggered if the war had continued, i believe that the US did need to drop the bomb on Hiroshima, however, it was not necessary to drop the following bomb on Nagasaki. With the break out of World War two, Hitlers initial victories captured the imagination of the Japanese militarists, showing what could be achieved through a program of territorial expansionism. Due to the war, changes occurred in Europe’s colonial powers, which created a power vacuum in South East Asia, and a perfect stage for Japan to expand their influence; as Edwin P Hoyt stated â€Å"Japans ambition at the lowest level was to replace the Europeans and the Americans as the colonial powers†¦establishing an Asian  Federation†. This shift in power however was not supported by the US , creating a poisonous relationship between the two nations that would end in catosptrophy. The US implemented harsh economic sanctions, resulting in an ultimatum for Japan. Japan could either give into the pressure from the US and retreat from South East Asia, or , they could advance to take over the resources of Malaya and the oil fields of the Netherlands East Indies, which would indefinitely lead to war with the US. Historian Hugh brogan affirms Roosevelt was â€Å" convinced US would enter the war†¦yet refused to fire the first shot†. The Japanese planned to adopt a dual approach were upon they would enter into negotiations with the US and prepare for war at the same time. The Japanese believed that war might be avoided if the 1  L.Morton, Decision to use the Atomic bomb, Foreign Affairs, 1956. US dropped the sanctions in return for their withdrawal from Indochina; however, on the 26th of November Cordell Hull made an unacceptable demand, claiming that the Japanese were required to withdraw from not just Indo China, but also China. Japan deemed this unacceptable, and at the Imperial Conference 1st December 1941 a final decision was made to go to war with the US, and orders were made to carry out a surprise attack on the US naval base of Pearl Harbour. On the 7th of December 1941 the Japanese attacked the American fleet at Pearl Harbour, killing 2388 soldiers 9, in the hopes of knocking the United States out of a Pacific war, allowing them to pursue their strategic and imperialistic goals. However, Japans failure to achieve total victory meant that the Japanese unified a nation against them, which then mobilised its mighty economy into a war machine that eventually defeated Japan. The importance in understanding the context which resulted in Japan and US warfare is vital in evaluating whether the US needed to drop the Atomic bomb. This being as it is evident that since the emergence of Japan as world power, the US have been present, and determined to minimise the Japanese’s influence. This relationship of dominance , whereby the US hands Japan harsh ultimatums is arguably one of the reasons why Japan refused to surrender in 1945, and will be discussed in depth as the essay progresses. As the conflict between the US and Japan developed the Japanese initially stunned the United States with their success, ending the period of European colonial rule in Asia within just 6 months, bringing to fruition the Japanese dream of a Greater East Asia Co Prosperity Sphere. The Japanese demolished the creed of European and white superiority that had been the bastion of European colonialism in Asia, completely reshaping the political dynamics of Asia. However, intoxicated by their success, rather than consolidating their gains, they still searched for new opportunities. The Allies began their counter attack, however, became aware of the determination that defined Japanese militarism, whereby their soldiers were willing to fight to death, rather than surrender. During December and January 1944 and 1945 the Americans regularly bombed the islands of Iwo Jima, launched 334 B’29s on the capital Tokyo killing 83000 people in March, and attacked Okinawa, the site of a major military base10. Thus by July 1945, Japan had few ships and planes to defend itself, and was met with leaflets from the US announcing in advance where the next attack would take place, urging people to surrender. Furthermore, the blockade implemented by the allies was severely impacting the Japanese, solidifying that defeat was inevitable, yet the Allies heard no news of surrender from the Emperor. Consequently the US began to evaluate the implementation of the A bomb as a necessary method in order to bring the war to a conclusion. President Truman described the Atomic project as the ‘greatest scientific gamble in history’ and believes his decision to drop it was unquestionably the right decision, bringing the war to a quick. end, and saving the lives of thousands of Allies. Prior to its use, the Potsdam Declaration was released, informing the Japanese that they must surrender unconditionally or face ‘prompt and utter destruction’. (Unknown to the Japanese this was a reference to the A-Bomb). The allies hoped that an invasion of Japan could be avoided if the declaration was accepted, however, with the Japanese’ failure to reply, the count down to the first  use of an atomic bomb moved onward. On the 6th of August 1945, the Enola Gay was released over the city of Hiroshima12, an unprecedented attack resulting in mass scale destruction. President Truman announced following that ‘If Japan does not now accept our terms they may expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this earth’. 13However, despite, the destruction of Hiroshima, the American Government received no communications from the Japanese government in Tokyo, resulting in a secon d bomb launched on Nagasaki. Consequently, on the 14th of August, after failed attempts of safeguarding his position, the Emperor accepted the Allied terms. Hirohito made an official radio broadcast to the nation, stating ‘should we continue to fight†¦it would lead to the total extinction of human civilisation’, 14and on the 2nd of September, aboard the Missouri, the main surrender occurred, ending the conflict in the pacific. The atomic bomb, although causing mass scale disaster, finished the cruel and drawn out conflict, however, does that mean that it was necessary, and can be justified? Perhaps the biggest debate which argues that the bomb was not needed was that fact Japan was in fact already defeated. Dennis Wainstock, author of ‘The decision to drop the bomb’ believes that the blockade, in conjunction with the B’29s attack destroyed Japan, broadening the realisation of defeat. Rear Admiral Tochitane Takata said ‘The b29’s were the greatest single factor in forcing the Japanese to surrender’ with Lieutenant General Kawabe believing ‘it is my opinion our loss in the air lost us the war’.16 Furthermore, Japan was economically dependant on foreign sources, thus the blockade favoured the conviction that defeat was inevitable as the Japanese population was starving to death. Additionally, there is significant evidence to support the argument that Japan would have surrended without use of the Atomic bomb, had the US been willing to safe guard the position of the Emperor. The Soviet Union received world from high-level Japanese sources confirming this, which, although many deny American knew about, Secretary of War Henry Stimson wrote ‘It was known to us that she had gone so far as to make tentative proposals to the soviet Government†¦not considered seriously’. However despite the aforementioned evidence suggesting that the Japanese were already defeated, it is arguable that that did not mean that they would surrender. throughout the war that, despite severe loss, they would rather die, than surrender. The invasion of Iwo Jima and Okinawa resulted in severe casualties, yet the Allies heard no talk of negotiations. Joseph C.Grew, who was the former Ambassador to Japan believed, through ‘intimate experience with the Japanese thinking and psychology over an extensive period’18 that regardless of military defeat, it would be highly unlikely that Japan would of their own initiative surrender. Additionally, Historian Barton Bernstein wrote ‘ no one who looks at intransigence of the Japanese militarists should have full confidence in any other strategy (apart from the A bomb), 19which affirms Truman’s decision that it was necessary in order to bring the war to a quick end. Furthermore, The American public was overwhelmingly behind the atomic bombing of Japan, with the bomb receiving an 85% approval 20rating, proving that within the context of the disaster, it was not considered to be as controversial as it is with the power of hindsight. From analysing the arguments for and against the US decision to drop the A bomb on Hiroshima it is clear that this controversial act of war is not easily declared right or wrong. However, arguably it is harder to argue on the side of the Allies when it comes to determining the necessity of the second bomb on Nagasaki. After the dropping of the first bomb, the Soviets declared war on Japan, which many historians believe would have been more than enough to convince the Japanese to surrender. As John W. Downer affirms in ‘Unconditional surrender at the Smithsonian’, ‘most Japanese accounts then and since weigh the soviet declaration of war as being at least as shocking as the Hiroshima bombing’. Further supported by Historian Gar Alperovitz, who believes that the shock of a soviet declaration of war would force Japan to realise defeat was inevitable and then clarification of surrender terms (assurance of the Emperor) would produce the surrender before an invasion took place. However, the US failed to hear a response in the delegated amount of time, and thusly, launched a second bomb on Nagasaki, resulting in the eventual surrender of Ja pan. When the US made their decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan, initiating the nuclear arms race, it was inevitable that Truman’s decision would be analysed, causing controversy for years to come. There is a plethora of published work that strongly believes that the US decision to  employ the A bomb was a mistake, and was blatantly not necessary as Japan was so weak indicating that surrender was not far off. Additionally, it cannot be forgotten that the victims of the bomb were primarily innocent civilians, thus from a moral point of view, the action cannot be justified. However, Japans militaristic attitude throughout the war consistently affirmed the US belief that Japan would never surrender of their own accord, and the A bomb was a necessary action in order to conclude the war. From analysing both sides of the argument i believe that the US did need to drop the first bomb in order to display to Japan that they did not have any other option but to surrender, however, the dropping of the second bomb was definitely not needed. The bombing of Hiroshima, in conjunction with the entry of the Soviet Union was more than enough to force Japan to surrender, and thusly, the bombing of Nagasaki cannot be justified. Bibliography Books 1. A.Pollock, D.McKinlay, J.Cantwell, Conflict in the Pacific 1937-195, McGraw Hill Publications, Australia 2003. 2. H.Truman, Memoir: Year of Decisions, Garden City 1955 3. H.L.Stimson, M.Bundy, On Active Service in peace and War, Harper and Brothers, New York 1948 4. D.Eisenhower, The white house years: Mandate for change 1953-1956, Garden City 1963 5. W.D.Leahy, I was there, Whittlesey House, New York 1950 6. J.C.Grew, Turbulent Era: A diplomatic Record of forty years 1904-1945, Hougton Mifflin Company 1952 7. H.L.Stimson, The decision to use the Atomic Bomb, week 13 reading 8. K.Doak, Nationalism in Modern Japan, Koninklike 2007, 9. E.Cannizzaro, The Law of Treaties beyond the Vienna Convention, Oxford 10. E.P.Hoyt, University Press 2011,Japans war: The Great Pacific Conflic, Random House 1971 11. D.D.Wainstock, The Decision to drop the Atomic Bomb, Prager Publishers, 1996 12. G. Alperovitz, The Decision to drop the Bomb, Vintage Books 1996 Articles 1. Barton J. Bernstein, A post war myth, 50000 U.S lives saved, Bulliten of Atomic Scientists, vol 3 no.9 2. John W. Dower, Unconditional Surrender at the Smithsonian, Week 13 Reading 3. L.Morton, Decision to use the Atomic bomb, Foreign Affairs, 1956 Website 1.The project of the Nuclear Age Peace correspondence/stimson-henry/corr_stimson_1945-07-31.htm

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Time Lags in Discretionary Fiscal Policy

When congress or the president proposes fiscal policies to correct unhealthy economic conditions, the time it takes from the recognition of the problem, to the proposal of a solution, to the implementation, up to the time that the effects would yield some result normally takes a considerable amount of time. These time lags can be grouped into three different phases, the recognition time lag, the implementation time lag, and the response time lag. Time lags in Discretionary Fiscal Policy, besides consuming some considerable amount of time, are also very unpredictable.Studies have shown that â€Å"discretionary actions have shown little consistent response over time† (Taylor, 2003). With these three time lags adding up together, we can say that when the government generates one proposal to ease out economic health, one must foresee that within the period of lag, there are no roadblocks or events that could alter the eventual outcome of such a solution. Given the initial informat ion that time lags are very unpredictable, it makes it more difficult to know what range of time needs to be foreseen.So within the period of the time lag, the conditions may alter in such a way that when the discretionary policy is already in place it is no longer applicable, or it could make the situation worst where the change of conditions within the time lag would work in such a way that it makes things worst. Let us focus first on a condition where discretionary fiscal policies would end up useless or delayed as the chain of events within the time lag would make it inappropriate.One example is President George Bush response to the September 11 attack where he immediately requested $40 billion in emergency supplemental appropriations. In the late October of that same year, he added additional stimulus that includes, â€Å"reduced taxes for low- and moderate-income households, accelerating the tax cuts passed in 2001, allowing partial expensing on business capital equipment, el iminating the corporate alternative minimum tax, and extending unemployment benefits† (Cooper, 2002). Five months later President Bush added expensing provisions and unemployment benefits.The result was that the people believed that the added policy was short and late. This is because there was no way for the President to directly quantify the needed policy to ease out the economic stress after the September 11 attack. The delay took so long that the needed effects came late. The events that occurred due to sentiments and fear where overlooked while the effects of the discretionary policy were not yet in effect. According to Auerbach (2002), â€Å"the impact of policy on current activity depends on expectations about the future†.The worst scenario would occur when discretionary fiscal would actually work against what it was intended for. This is because discretionary fiscal policy is an inexact science with congress having different agendas trying to work out with the P resident using present data that are already in effect and taking time to generate a corrective action for the present conditions. For example â€Å"temporary investment incentives may work in the opposite direction strengthening the immediate response but also, potentially, weakening prior investment† (Auerbach, 2002).This is because when the data are collected and fiscal policies are put in place, the progress of investment within this period could well be depending primarily on prior investment that are expected to boom during the period where the discretionary fiscal is still in the process of being implemented. Upon implementation of the discretionary policy, these prior investments could be affected by massive competition of new investment resulting in a scenario where the discretionary fiscal will worsen the economic condition.In the end, this document does not discourage the use of discretionary fiscal policy but puts caution that discretionary fiscal policies should be well thought off, assessing the possible future risk before it is being implemented. Effective discretionary fiscal policy is just like mastery of any art, that a group of body, the congress and the president, must become a guru in order for discretionary policies to be effective. References Taylor,J. (2003). Reassessing Discretionary Fiscal Policy. Stanford University, Retrieved September 15, 2007 from Cooper, K. (2002). Monetary Policy. Economics: Principles, and Policies, 16/e.. Retrieved March 23, 2007 from Auerbach, A. (2002). Is There a Role for Discretionary Fiscal Policy?. The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Retrieved September 15, 2007 from

Thursday, November 7, 2019


MASSED PRACTICE AND DICTRIBUTIVE PRACTICE1 essays Running head: MASSED PRACTICE AND DICTRIBUTIVE PRACTICE The Effects of Massed Practice and Distributive Practice on Motor Skill Task. Queens College/ City University of New York Over a century scientist have wonder if massed practice conditions are superior to distributive practice conditions or visa versa. According to a mete-analytic review scientists have researched this very phenomenon and have concluded that distributive practices conditions are superior to those of massed practice conditions in a variety of situations. These results are supported by Maureen Bergondys experiment on team practice schedules as well as William C. Chaseys experiment on distribution of practice on learning retention and relearning. This experiment deals with the relationship between conditions of massed practice and distributive practice with respect to task performance. The motor skill task performed by subjects in this study wrote the English alphabet upside down fifty times. One group was given the massed practice motor task; while subjects from the five other groups practiced the motor task under five different distributions of time. However, our findings do not support those of previous findings. Our mixed factorial experiment with 51 subjects indicates that neither massed practice conditions or distributive practice conditions were superior. Therefore, the subjects acquisition of the motor task did not improve as a result of massed or distributed practice, but rather as the result of practice alone. Massed Practice and Distributive Practice Massed practice conditions are those in which individuals practice a task continuously without rest. While distributive practice conditions are those in which individuals are given rest intervals within the practice session. This mixed factorial experiment with 51 subjects deals with the effects of massed practice and distributive practice with respect to acqui...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Ulterior and Alterior

Ulterior and Alterior Ulterior and Alterior Ulterior and Alterior By Maeve Maddox A reader brought alterior to my attention by asking if a use of â€Å"ulterior motive† he read in an article should have been â€Å"alterior motive.† Although I found several speculative â€Å"definitions† of alterior on various sites, neither the OED nor Merriam-Webster offers an entry for this word. Because it seems always to occur with motive or motives, I conclude that alterior is an error for ulterior. The adjective ulterior derives from Latin ulterior: â€Å"further, more distant.† An ulterior motive is one that lies beyond the apparent motive. For example, when a popular product develops a feature that makes the product more convenient, the apparent motive is to make the product easier for the customer to use. The ulterior motive is to earn more money by selling more merchandise. The mistaken use of alterior is especially common on sites related to emotional involvements, television, sports, and political opinion. Here are some examples, with corrections: INCORRECT: Im not convinced hes doing anything out of the kindness of his heart for women or anyone. Feels like he always has alterior motives.- Soap opera blog. CORRECT : Im not convinced hes doing anything out of the kindness of his heart for women or anyone. Feels like he always has ulterior motives. INCORRECT: The thing that bothers me the most is that there is no honesty or real emotion into anything that they say. Everything they say has an alterior motive.- Therapy blog. CORRECT : The thing that bothers me the most is that there is no honesty or real emotion in anything that they say. Everything they say has an ulterior motive. INCORRECT: People like to put on fronts and might have alterior motives when you dont have a shared history that can easily fool you.- Quora user. CORRECT : People like to put on fronts and might have ulterior motives when you dont have a shared history that can easily fool you. INCORRECT: The [remarks of] the salesman sounded like they came from a politician. He seemed to dodge every question, whether it be from lack of knowledge or alterior motives I dont know.- Yelp review. CORRECT : The [remarks of] the salesman sounded like they came from a politician. He seemed to dodge every question, whether it be from lack of knowledge or ulterior motives I dont know. INCORRECT: I usually appreciate good sportsmanship, but that was just weird. It was very obvious that there was an alterior motive, because of the way the groups were separated.  - TV fan blog. CORRECT : I usually appreciate good sportsmanship, but that was just weird. It was very obvious that there was an ulterior motive, because of the way the groups were separated.   Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:What Is Irony? (With Examples)The Writing ProcessEducational vs. Educative

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Something relating to the history of the Holocaust Research Paper

Something relating to the history of the Holocaust - Research Paper Example The contrary will be shown. It will be shown that they had a class system. They had classified the types of citizens as early as 1936. The infrastructure had been created and the fascilities were built before the Germans even entered Dutch soil enabling the Germans to come in and murder over 100 000 people in less than 3 years. Three stages will be examined is this essay. From 1936-1939, when the national decree dictated who was a dutch citizen and the creation of refugee centers. From 1939 to 1940, when Westerbrok was voted into Parliament as a center for the "legal refugees". To conclude with the capitulation of the Netherlands government within 5 days in 1940 and the consequences it had on the Shoah. Please note that in the sources there is much conflicting information due to the age of the survivors and the difference in translations and countries methods of notations.. 1936-139 The Jewish population of Amsterdam represented approximately 10% of the population. The attitude was r ather avant garde, agnostic, assimilated and had benefited greatly from the WWI attitude of being a neutral state.(Hillesum 1999) There was a sense of safty of being Dutch before being Jewish. The general consensus was accepting the census as a natural govermental process. Upon registering in 1936, Jews were told that as citizens they would be protected. (Vanderwerff 2010)The atmosphere as explained by Etty Hillesum, in her Letters of Westerbork, was that she had no desire for organised religion. Life was absurd. God was helpless (12/07/1942) She was born into an agnostic family. Before 1941, she was lost in the different intellectual circles of Amsterdam. She had failed her exam to get into law school. She studied Slavic studies and then went on to tutor. This is an insight into the Jewish population of Amsterdam. The intellectual assimilation would eventually be the demise of the Jews of Amsterdam. The felt themeselves more protected and superior over the German Jews who were ofte n poorer and less educated then the Dutch Jews. They had jobs and lived in proper housing. They were not touched by the refugee housing or economic situation. As in other European nations, they considered themselves citizens of the nation of their birth. In 1936, by Royal Decree it was voted that a national census would require new identity cards in order to define who were Dutch citizens. Religion was required on the last line of the card. (Vanderwerff 2010) In 1939, Refugees were forced to register. Legal Refugee Jews (Stateless) were defined by having been born in a country that no longer existed because of World War I and having been born in Poland. Illegal Refugee Jews were those who came into the Netherlands without any visas. Illegal refugees were sent back to Germany. (Vanderwerff 2010) In World War I, The Netherlands had remained a neutral State. It was common knowledge that the Netherlands was a state that had had an open door policy. Because of the depression, lack of job s and overall anti-semitism, German Jews and Stateless Jews were considered secondary citizen to Dutch citizens. The geo-political economic situation of Europe has changed the map. Dutch citizens were given precedents over refugees in employment and housing. What had been refugee homes all over the country since 1936 had become internment camps in

Friday, November 1, 2019

Gay Rights Towards Gay Marriage Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Gay Rights Towards Gay Marriage - Research Paper Example However, whether same sex individuals be allowed to marry is still controversial. This paper argues that gay marriage should be legalized because same-sex parents can prove to be better parents; it reinforces their rights as humans; and, it stabilizes the society through child adoption. Gay marriages should be legalized since same sex couples can prove to be better parents than opposite sex couples. Biblarz and Stacey (3) argue that the gender of parents â€Å"has minor significance for childrens psychological adjustment and social success.† Family instability may take its toll on normal psychological development of children of both straight and same-sex couples, and so, it is not true that only gay parents prove to be bad parents by any means. They may prove to be better parents, states Kurdek (880) in his research. He argues that two men or women can raise kids better in terms of sexual growth, than a man or a woman in a traditional home setting. Kids of gay couples do not have to see one of their parents involved in extra-marital affairs. They do not have to see their moms and dads fighting with each other every day. Kids pay little attention to what the relationship between their parents is, or whether or not their relationship relates to societal norms or not. All they want is love, of parents towards them and also towards each other. So, the relationship between parents has nothing to do with children becoming homo or hetero-sexual. Thus, gay marriages should be legalized without getting concerned about the parenting capabilities of the couples involved. â€Å"Same-sex marriages will offer voluntary support to the institution by allowing freedom in selecting one’s partner†, states Bolte (1). She has focused upon the reinforcement of human rights regarding selection partner through utilitarian arguments.