Monday, September 30, 2019

Competencies in HR

Core competencies an essential method for the company. It helps to develop the competitive advantage over other companies. The actual sources of advantage are to be found in the management’s capability to combine business varied technologies and production skills onto competencies that authorize and enable individual businesses to adapt rapidly to shifting opportunities. In short, core competencies are the combined learning in the organization, particularly how to organize various production skills and participate numerous streams of technology to accomplish interactions and generate unexpected products (Prahalad, and Hamel, 1990, p. 9-90). In other words, by selecting and focusing on an organization’s core competences, the management is talented to take significance which empowers the organization to attain a greater productivity. The preferred outputs for an organization are increased profits and revenues. The output for an army organization is mission achievement in battle fighting, solidity operations, or homeland protection. Senior management will consequently be judged on their capability to recognize, encourage, and exploit core competencies that create achievement potential progress and revenue for an organization; efficiency and mission success for a military. While great republics usually tend to develop large, all-purpose forces to cover all possibilities and army characters, smaller republics, with both smallest citizens and resources or budgets must consider what core competencies they should emphasis in order to deliver worth additional contributions as association followers, peacekeeping contributors, and ad-hoc partners. These competencies can suggest concentrating on sure position competences. for Volume 9, 2007 Baltic Security & Defence Review 222 What is Competency? Competencies are the fundamental elements of talent management practices. They are the demonstrable and assessable knowledge, skills, behaviors, individual characteristics that are allied with or predicative of excellent job performance. There are two types of competencies: 1) technical competencies and, 2) behavioral competencies. Why competencies importance: The first point is to link the competencies model with business or organizational strategies that make the managements understand and define the skills, attributes, attitude and knowledge leads to high performance. Through competencies model the organization sends a consistent message to the workforce about what it takes to be successful in the job. The importance of competencies matrix helps employees realize what helps drive successful performance. It is an approach concentrate on the â€Å"how† of the job. It means the competency model is behavioral rather than functional concentrate on the people rather than jobs. Moreover, competency models consider as an outcome driven rather than activities, for instance, the job description focus on activities while the competencies matrix focus on outcomes. Integrates HR strategy with organizational strategy both focus of outcomes. The competencies framework set in the heart of HR, it serves as the basis upon which all employees processes are constructed (Berger and Berger, 2011). On the other word, competencies model provides an organization with a common language and a consistent and measurable platform on which Human Resource systems can be based. In addition, the competencies model is important because it: †¢Defining the factors for success in jobs and work roles. Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles. †¢Mapping succession possibilities for employees. †¢Selecting applicants using competency based interviewing & assessment techniques. †¢Designing and determining training solutions. The competency Model: The competency model classifies usually three clusters of competencies: 1-Core competencies: reflect the set of critical competencies required throughout t he company to shape the organizational abilities and culture required to accomplish the strategic goals. Time management, communication and result orientation are an example of core competencies. 2-Leadership competencies: this type of competencies designed for the managerial position of several level for selection, succession planning and development purpose. An example of leadership competencies are Conflict management, leadership skills and strategic thinking. 3-Functional or technical competencies: consider as a special type use specifically for each job family. For example budgeting and forecasting, policies and procedure and payable are an examples of technical competencies.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

ICT and an Adult in Education Essay

Mr Williams is a teacher at my school, he teaches ICT and Business Studies at KS3, ICT at KS4, Form Tutor, Production, Collection and Collation of Reports for the whole of my school. He produces information on students and for staff to help in teaching and learning, he also produces statistics for staff, senior staff, LEA and DFES. He also produces information to do with effort grades ad target setting information. So he uses a lot of technology, this includes; * PC’s on a Network * Apple Mac’s on a Network * Internet via 10MB broadband * E-mail * Laptop also on Network * Digital Video Camera * Digital Still Camera * Digital LCD Projector * Palm m515 PDA * Wireless Notebooks Window/MAC OS * USB Memory sticks * Data Logging Hardware * Control hardware/software * Fax * Also available – Interactive Whiteboard Mr Williams is a teacher of I.C.T and business studies at Key Stage 3, teacher of I.C.T at Key Stage 4, Production, collection and collation of Reports for the whole school, effort grades and target setting information he produces also. He produces of information on students for staff to use which will help in teaching and learning. He has achieved the Electronic registration system for the whole school within 12 months for people to use and view. He performs general backup for staff using RM software, he also performs General Network Administration which is adding new pupils and staff users. He gives advice on purchasing new equipment for the whole school and departments. He selects, purchases and setup’s laptops for teachers using E-Learning. Mr Williams analyses exam results so senior staff and heads of years or departments so they are aware of achievement compared to the expected results. Staff are also able to view these results so they can be aware of performance issues. Subject staffs, heads of years and departments, senior staff and form tutors are also able to access these results, grades and comments. Extra software is available which will help staff by using the system that was introduced by Mr Williams, (software produced using Microsoft Visual Basic). The RM Network The RM network system allows Mr Williams to access the information on students and is able to update it if needed such as if the student changes address or phone numbers. Mr Howells can now, after Mr Williams has set the network up, can get access to LEA Management Information System and the school records. Data bases are creates to hold student information on staffs users names or folders on their laptops. Mr Williams has also enabled access from home, using the internet and school passwords. He has also updates the Pupil Achievement Tracker software which allows staff to store progress of students within classes or year group. The RM connect system enables Mr Williams and two other members of staff, who are supervisor users, to access students work areas to solve problems and to check appropriate use of programmes and internet. The E-mail system is also filtered so inappropriate E-mails are redirected and staff are able to view them, the access of websites with inappropriate langua ge or content such as pictures, Mr Williams and the other two members can check. The RM system is set up to allows staff to open Read only documents so they can give students access to related subjects. Mr Williams uses this for providing information, revision materials, coursework guides and modelling situations and simulation materials. Also used is a Virtual CDROM software and a multimedia server this allows staff and students to access CDROM images, such as the Applied ICT On-Line course used in years 9, 10 and 11. Digital Multimedia Technology Mr Williams also uses digital multimedia technology to help provide teaching and learning resources. Mr Williams used a digital camcorder, a still camcorder and Video editing software on Apple computers on a programme called IMovie and Windows, Microsoft Movie Maker2 to interview staff in local company. The final video clips were used on Matchware Mediator, which helped him to produce a series of web pages which students now use for their coursework tasks. Digital LCD Projector Mr Williams uses a digital LCD projector to allow students to use and interact with progressing work. Either Mr Williams or a Student will control the PC being used in the demonstration or teaching session. Mr Williams also uses this technology with teachers on Inset days for staff. School Internet Network Mr Williams uses the internet the school provides for teaching and learning and links on the school system. The internet is used for research for topics and to help Mr Williams keep up to date with the education and subjects. Students and staff use the school e-mail system to communicate or send work for marking or that has been marked via E-mail. Mr Williams can view student’s progress on GCSE grades by using created databases in DataPower which stores coursework marks, comments and examination marks. Formulae is used to estimate the final grade the student may be given to the student, he can do this by using board supplied information. This information is shared with students and used to report back to parents. Virtual Learning Mr Williams has helped in the introduction of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). The VLE allows students to upload web pages to the school system and also as a secure data and information storage area for student’s work. PDA Mr Williams uses PDA in school; this holds a lot of useful information such as Diary information, pupil performance information, examples of E-book for future reference by students in the school. Software and information can be ‘beamed’ using Infra – Red technology to members of staff or to certain Infra-Red equipped printers in the school. USB Stick Mr Williams has introduced the use of USB stick technology which enables transport of large amounts of data in a compact secure form (32 or 128 Mb at present). Data Logging and Control Hardware Mr Williams uses Data Logging and Control hardware in teaching and provides INSET days for ICT and Science staff, these days are needed to improve the quality of teach Wireless Mr Williams uses the wireless (55Mb) notebooks with students in school and with adult learners to allow them to experience new technology. The advantages are obvious, a lot more space recommended for each machine, extra infra form is required, (Wireless access points can be plugged into network sockets, for easy movement), students can also work in groups in a more adjustable way. The School Network The School Network System enables Mr Williams to access information on students or necessary by students or staff anywhere in the school. Software He uses a lot of software such as Microsoft Word Access, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Publisher, DataPower 2, Macromedia dreamweaver, Macromedia Fireworks, Macromedia Flash, Macromedia Freehand, Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Photoshop, Pupil Achievement Tracker (PAT), IMovie, Microsoft Movie Maker 2, QuickTime Pro, Microsoft Visual Basic, Internet Explorer, EasyMail and Outlook Express. Hardware and Network, Windows Desktop PC’s, Windows Laptop, Apple IBooks (wireless) Apple G4 desktops, Apple Network using MACOS Xserver, RM Connect network using 5 NT4 servers and a multimedia server, Fibre Optic spine connecting four cabinets which contain Hubs and Switches, 100Mb Ethernet to the desktop, 10Mb Broadband Internet access with RM SmartCache technology, Palm m515 PDA using IR and USB technologies for transferring data. He also uses a Promethean Interactive Whiteboard, Sony digital video camera, Canon digital video camera, Sony digital still camera, Canon digital still camera. The Internet Mr Williams uses the internet for research, if he did not have the internet he would have to get information from textbooks, and use more textbooks during lessons while he teaches. If he had to do this it would be expensive. If he was not able to have access to the internet it would mean he would have to photocopy from books so he would have to arrange time before and after lessons to photocopy the information needed. To do this more money is needed to be spent and more time would be needed, so other jobs will not be able to be completed as time would be wasted on photocopying. As Mr Williams will always be up to date with resources as he uses the internet. Mr Williams also uses the internet to buy gifts for friends and family, such as buying tickets fro the cinema or theatre, with his friends and family. He likes using the internet to but gifts as he gets an online discount, that isn’t available in the shops and by using the internet he doesn’t have to waste time waiti ng in queues. Although there is a disadvantage about purchasing online as he doesn’t always get to see all the objects in the shop, and he also has to pay for delivery, but that works out the same as the amount of money he would of spent driving to the shop and parking. The PDA The PDA had several facilities this means Mr Williams will have all the information he needs for the day. If he didn’t have this piece of technology Mr Williams wouldn’t be able to travel around school to see students and teachers as he would have to carry lot’s of papers with him if he didn’t have this technology. Sometimes he is not able to take his laptop into meetings but with this programme he is able to save work to his area, this is handy as he will never loose his work or information, like he would if he had to carry paper around with him. The PDA has facilities which a useful to Mr Williams, such as alarms and a diary, this meets his needs as he is never late to an appointment or meeting and never misses a private party or function, like a family member’s of friends birthday party. Digital Camcorder He uses a digital camcorder to create applications for his students ICT classes. This allows Mr Williams to download the resources directly to the system. Mr Williams can now uses student friendly resources in his teaching schedules, enriching and improving the experience of his students education. Memory Stick Mr Williams uses a memory stick which allows him to be more resourceful and more flexible in his job. This means Mr Williams can hold data on and be able to transport it around school easily. As he can store more work it means he can do more work at home in his own time in the evenings and at the weekend. This means Mr Williams can now spend more time at home as before he had a memory stick he would have had to spend more time at school, which before he felt he was missing out on his family life. Notebook Dell D810 He uses a Notebook Dell D810, this means he now has more freedom than he used too. Before he had this laptop it meant that he had to sit at a desktop, which is usually in a classroom, and could not get much work finished. This programme means that he can move around during school, as long as it has a wireless connection to the network, having this means he can complete all of his work. Microsoft Word This Microsoft programme can give Mr Williams a variety of options and facilities. One of the facilities is mail merge is useful for producing reports for students. If Mr Williams did not have this option of using Microsoft Word, it would take him an awful long time to add address’s and reports for students. The word processing software also checks his spelling and grammar so it looks professional and correct. Power Point is also used by Mr Williams to create presentations for students. Having this programme allows students how to create different fun pieces or work. E-Mail Mr Williams uses E-mail for school and his social life he uses this so he can send work to and from home, also he can sends work to students via e-mail, with suggestions on how to improve their work. He also uses this to communicate with his family and friends to arrange events in his social life. He likes e-mail because he knows that when he sent an e-mail, it will be viewed by the person he has sent it to, when they open their inbox. This therefore means he can communicate. This means he can communicate with anyone when he is on his computer and isn’t near a phone. Doing this means he doesn’t have to wait until the person turns on their phone or leaves a message or is at home. Mr Williams feels that when he leaves a message on a phone, he doesn’t feel he can communicate properly. He knows that if he sends an e-mail, all of the necessary information will be displayed once read. Network System Mr Williams is able to access information anywhere in the school. This means that he can complete his work anywhere and any time, when he has spare time.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Capitalism and Calvin Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Capitalism and Calvin - Essay Example John Calvin's letter on usury of 1545 made it clear that when Christ said "lend hoping for nothing in return," He meant that we should help the poor freely. Following the rule of equity, we should judge people by their circumstances, not by legal definitions. Humanist that he was, Calvin knew there were two Hebrew words translated as "usury." One, neshek, meant "to bite"; the other, tarbit, meant "to take legitimate increase." Based on these distinctions, Calvin argued that only "biting" loans were forbidden. Thus, one could lend at interest to business people who would make a profit using the money. To the working poor one could lend without interest, but expect the loan to be repaid. To the impoverished one should give without expecting repayment. The arguments in Calvin's letter on usury are amplified in Charles du Moulin's Tractatus commerciorum et usurarum, redituumque pecunia constitutorum et monetarum, written in 1542 and published in Paris in 1546. Du Moulin ("Molinaeus") developed a utility theory of value for money, rejecting Aquinas' belief that money could not be rented because it was consumed. This attack on the Thomist understanding of money was taken up by Spanish commentators. Domingo de Soto, concerned about social justice, suggested that Luke 6:35 was not a precept, since it has no relation to the justice of lending at interest. Luis de Molina, writing in the late sixteenth century, agreed. He suggested that there was no biblical text which actually prohibited lending money at interest. ( in Noonan, 1957) By the second half of the sixteenth century Catholics and Protestant alike were increasingly tolerant of the idea that the legality of loans at interest was determined by the intentions of the parties involved. Theologians... The researcher of this essay states that before we go on discussing how Calvin contributed to capitalism, we firstly need to discuss the word capitalism. If we are to look in the modern world, we can see that trade is characterized by an exchange of goods which brings in profits to the seller. The researcher explaines that this is the idea behind Capitalism – to make profits from an investment. Products are manufactured from raw materials then sold at a price higher than the cost of production. The idea of applying interest on loans, which is the spirit of capitalism, was widely condemned in ages past. Calvin was part of a society that had forbidden the lending of money at interest for 750 years. By 1544 Calvin had "formulated a doctrine about lending money at interest". John Calvin’s letter on usury of 1545 made it clear that when Christ said â€Å"lend hoping for nothing in return,† He meant that we should help the poor freely. In essence, the Calvinist Puritan leaders of the Reformation or those who were influenced by Calvin, believed that profitable undertakings, that gave the world a perfect recipe for capital accumulation by regarding frivolous spending as equivalent to sin. It is also maintained that without this attitude, Europe would never have acquired enough capital to launch the capitalist system. The Calvinists or the Reformed divinity were less bound to precedent and adjusted itself rapidly to the new economy. With this idea of practicing thrift, they became a successful merchant class and thus capitalism grew.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Labor law and overtime Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Labor law and overtime - Essay Example There is an exemption to-overtime-pay for employees working in police department, fire fighters, and employees working in the hospitals like nurses (Solis, 2012). Exemption from overtime applies to registered nurses and those who earn $455 per week. Nurses who receive an hourly pay will qualify for overtime. Additionally, labour laws give room for an agreement between the employer and the employees. A nurse can receive extra pay for working on weekends, on call, or working at night according to the agreement with the employer. There is a law that protects nurses from working overtime. According to New York Department of labour, restrictions on consecutive hours of work for nurses, law effected on 1 July 2009 prohibits healthcare employers from mandating overtime for nurses. This law covers registered professional nurses or licensed practical nurses that provide direct patient care through contracts with third party staffing providers. The law applies on part time bases, full time, and to nurses working under contracts, (â€Å"New York Department of labour,† 2012). It is not allowed for a nurse to engage in voluntary work ask for pay. At the time of employment, every nurse signs a contract that stipulates the terms of employment. A contract guides and binds the nurse, the employer to the terms recorded, and nothing outside the contract is

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Sri Lankan Tamil Tigers Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Sri Lankan Tamil Tigers - Assignment Example Sri Lanka is basically a pear shaped island situated in the Indian Ocean between 5-54'N and 9-52'N latitudes, and longitudes of 79-39'E and 81-53'E. The island was originally a part of India that got separated with time by a channel and now is only 35 kilometers of wide at its narrowest. The entire region of Sri Lanka is famous for its cultivation, monsoonal climate, green lavish tea producing farms, elephant breeding, and biological parks. Sri Lanka has always been very famous also because of the highest literacy rate of its population that was supposed to be above 90% in 1990s according to its census. Apart from all these delicacies, natural inheritance, and scenic beauties; there is a dark side of the island as well, which is known as the Sri Lankan Tamil Tigers. The following information will reveal more details about the Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka with necessary details and descriptions. The Sri Lankan Tamil Tigers can also be referred to as Liberation of Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), Tiger Movement, Air Tigers, Eellalan or Ellalan Force, Sangilian Force, Black Tigers, Sea Tigers, Tiger Organization Security Intelligence Service (TOSIS), or Women's Combat Force of Liberation Tigers (WCFLT). This league or liberation party is a militant organization originally based in northern Sri Lanka and was founded in the year 1976. The main purpose and objective of this organization is to actively fight violently secessionist campaign in order to seek independence for Tamils in the shape of a Tamil state in the north and east side of Sri Lanka. This is one of the longest running and unsolved violent conflicts in Asia that has not solved till date and has get into the Sri Lankan civil war as well. At present, the Tamil Tigers are identified as a terrorist group or organization by almost 32 independent countries who regard them as terrorist. This is because of the fact that Tamil Tigers are involved in the well-organized militia cadre, and are dishonorable of carried out violence against civilians and normal people, including elimination and murder of many Sri Lankan and Indian politicians and high-ranking officials. They train adults and children simultaneously and help them to become Tamil Tigers and fight against the government to seek independence by utilizing violence, gunshots, fires, bombings, and suicide bombing as well. They even made use of modern

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Effect of Death on Nursing Profession Assignment

The Effect of Death on Nursing Profession - Assignment Example This paper tells that it is one thing to see other people die, and it hurts, but it isn’t somebody you are really close to. When my father died it set off all sorts of emotions, and they pretty much controlled me for a while. But once I began to understand that my father was better off and in a better place, I began to see my life turn around. I have a new instilled hope in everything I did, and I knew I wanted to go back to work. Cope? I guess you could use cope. For a time that was really all, I was doing. Coping however is not the most healthy thing in the world. Eventually, you overcome that and grieve. And grieving, that came out mostly through music. Of course, there were a lot of late nights in there as well. *Laughs*  It just felt right. When I was making the album the entirety of everything I have seen and done all came together. My father's death has a huge impact, and in some way each death I had seen as well. It just felt like the right thing to do.  That's a t ough one. I could never see myself leaving nursing, but at the same time, If I could share my message and music to people all over and they enjoyed it, it would be hard to turn that down as well. I guess we will just have to see what happens and go from there. Maybe I could be a nurse musician. The most important thing to know when dealing with death is that it doesn’t have to be this crazy end of your lifetime. A lot of people downward spiral, and I did as well. It doesn’t have to be that. There is this surreal quality to death that most people miss. Is it sad? Yes. Do I wish it didn’t happen? Of course. But you have to accept it and enjoy life and not let death ruin what life you have left.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Consumer Attitude Moulding for Korean car Imports in Australian Market Essay

Consumer Attitude Moulding for Korean car Imports in Australian Market - Essay Example ative characteristics, here the attitude hierarchy would be cognitive then affect, how the consumer feels or first chose emotional then rational, you will not act on it before you go through a cognitive and emotional process (Foxall, 2002). You will make sure that you look at as many features as possible and go through intense emotional processes, instead of depending on your mood while looking at a car. For example if you have a family you will consider a mini-van over a convertible because of the added benefits and features, you will then see if you will enjoy the car, how will your family like it is it giving you the satisfaction you want, and then you will finally decide on the connotation, whether you want to buy it or not. This goes for all products that require high involvement of the consumer. (Windham & Orton, 2000) As a strategic Marketing manager for a new line of South Korean cars in Australia I have to consider many things about the product. As a Strategic Marketing Manager I should have in-depth knowledge of competitive dynamics and how to integrate marketing strategy into the overall business strategy, I should be able to develop Frameworks for analyzing customer preferences and enhancing customer relationships and should be able to Build and manage brand equity with effective market communication. (Chernev, 2007) (Stanford, 2008) Hyundai and its auxiliary Kia are currently the 7th largest car group in the world, just after companies like GM, Ford, Toyota, Renault-Nissan, Volkswagen and DaimlerChrysler. It is also one of the fastest rising companies and a formidable rival to Western car makers. With the benefits such as low labour and parts cost in Korea and the government’s policies that favour the car industry, Hyundai and Kia are able to price their cars much cheaper and at an affordable cost than Western and Japanese cars. At the same time, the company has been able to improve its engineering and quality standard swiftly in recent years,

Monday, September 23, 2019

The relationship between organizational design and service behaviors Essay

The relationship between organizational design and service behaviors in the hospitality industry - Essay Example Literature suggests that customers are the most important stakeholders in the hospitality industry as all operations carried out primarily focus on gratifying the customers’ needs. As the name indicates, providing service profitably to people with consistence in quality and creating an atmosphere to make every individual feel exceptional forms the hallmark of the hospitality industry (Hogan 2008). It is said that this industry is itself a part of a larger group of industries called travel and tourism industry and together hospitality and tourism make up the largest industries in the world (Walker 2009, p. 4). As one of the biggest and fastest growing industries in the world, a vast amount of research is done as yet to evaluate the implications of organizational structure and service behaviors on the growth and success of this industry. â€Å"The hospitality industry includes the tourism lodgings, the catering companies, as well as the food and beverage departments operating w ithin the lodgings† (Kapiki 2012, p. 2247). In addition to this, other sources suggest that the transportation services which include airlines, cruises, and trains, retail stores, and recreational event planning also makes up giant blocks of the hospitality industry (Kasavana & Brook, 2007). ... helps in managing a smooth experience from check-in to billing (Reinhart 2012) and enables the employers to create a right impression on the community. It not only aids different organizations to maintain long-term success but also guides them to competitively struggle in the fierce marketplace as a way of meeting the customers’ dynamic preferences. Not only is the organizational design or structure the main factor influencing the organizational innovation (Lavado cited in Heydarinejad, Boushehri & Delfani 2011, p. 145) but also there is a growing need to incorporate flexible and organic structures where the personnel is especially trained to treat a diverse customer line and is given empowerment to participate in decision-making processes (Daft cited in Heydarinejad, Boushehri & Delfani 2011, p. 145). In the highly competitive present times, scrutinizing a range of organizational designs and approaches is critically important to retain success by any organization operating in the hospitality industry as a way of facing the competition and addressing the ever-growing demands of the customers (Caruana et al. cited in Heydarinejad, Boushehri & Delfani 2011, p. 145). Regarding the importance of service behaviors in the hospitality industry, it is claimed that â€Å"hospitality employees have the ability to affect the human experience by creating powerful impressions that may last a lifetime† (Walker 2009, p. 4). This is because since hospitality staff is under direct responsibility to serve people from diverse backgrounds, the customers’ future behavioral intentions are affected by the treatment they receive as they continue to get a taste of what the business is all about and how it is handled every time the staff interacts with them (Reinhart 2012). This essay

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Global Supply Chain Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

The Global Supply Chain Management - Assignment Example This essay discusses that  the globalization of trade in the last 10 years has expanded dramatically and when it comes to 'Fashion', the possibilities are unlimited. Supply chain management contributes the maximum for companies to leverage their business standards internationally. My goal in this paper is to present a study on Global supply chain Management along with its elements and compounds for a better understanding of its function. The paper explores the Global supply chain management through a rigorous study from available books and journals pertaining to the context, and then gradually I would move towards the purpose of this paper i.e. to conduct a case study on ' The Global Supply chain Management of ‘Zara’.  Ã‚  As the report highlights  the supply chain is referred to the sequence or series of events in which the product is flowing or circulating, and adding value to the value of that particular product. The events refer to the assembling, converting, a nd distributing the products. In other words supply chain management is all about creating a link which connects the producer/manufacturer with the distributors and most importantly to the final consumer. This link is a dedicated service which is transparent in its function. While the institute of supply management Inc USA, defines the term as a seamless management and a process that adds value to the organization by reaching the end consumer beyond boundaries.  ... In other words supply chain management is all about creating a link which connects the producer/manufacturer with the distributors and most importantly to the final consumer. This link is a dedicated service which is transparent in its function (Alan, 2009). While the institute of supply management Inc USA, defines the term as a seamless management and a process that adds value to the organization by reaching the end consumer beyond boundaries. Apart from the essential activities involved in its function, it also encompasses the association and contribution of their respective channel partners, providers, suppliers or intermediaries ("Supply Chain Management"). Fig. 1.0 – Supply Chain Activities Why Global Supply Chain Management? The globalization of the clothing industry has enabled designer brands, manufacturers and retailers to reach out to as many consumers as possible. However, the goods produced by this industry have a short life span, the demand for new concept is huge . To balance this complex chain of demand and supply; many firms have chosen to incorporate with channel partners all across the world in different countries ("SAHCC"). Today most of the top apparel companies are managing their competition through respective partners. it is quite evident that an independent company with all its resources may not be able to give stiff competition to its competitor and with the proper downstream arrangement of the production at the input level, up to the output level and finally being distributed by the collaborated efforts of the channel partners would ensure a successful strategy of overpowering any competition ("Supply Chain Management"). Components of Supply Chain management Joel, in his book highlights the most important

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Issues in Human Resource Strategies That Improve Organizational Performance Essay Example for Free

Issues in Human Resource Strategies That Improve Organizational Performance Essay A rapidly changing economic environment, characterized by such phenomena as the globalization, and deregulation of markets, changing customer and investor demands, and ever increasing product market competition, has become the norm for most organization. To compete, they must continually improve their performance by reducing costs; innovating products and processes; improving quality, productivity, and speed to market; and more importantly by improving their individual performance within the organization. In order to do this, a set of distinctive human resource strategies, defined as internally consistent bundles of human resource practices (Dyer Reeves, 1995), is clearly essential. Sparrow and Marchington (1998) suggested that HR practices are the most advanced, the most sophisticated, and the most efficient basis for organizing and for obtaining high performance from employees since it seeks to strategically integrate the interests of an organization and its employees. In addition, a number of studies have also indicated that there is a positive relationship between effective HR strategies and organizational performance. Specifically, it is suggested that HR practices can improve organizational and operational performance when matched with quality manufacturing strategies (Stone, 2002). Nevertheless, despite the positive relationship found between HR practices and firm performance, there are a number of issues and questions surrounding them. One problem in relating HRM and performance is the lack of theoretical background; resulting in both terms remain ambiguous concepts. Other questions arise in relation with the link between HR strategies and performance are the inconsistent findings in regards to what constitutes a high performance HR strategy (Becker Gerhart, 1996; Cooke, 2001) and the problems with HRM and performance measurements (Guest et al. , 2003). The aim of this essay is to outline and explain the issues in developing human resource strategies that improve organizational performance. Specifically, the essay shall begin with presenting the issue of theoretical background of the concept of HRM and organizational performance. Subsequently, it shall discuss the issue about diversified strategies used to improve performance, and the problems in measuring HRM and performance. ?HRM and Organizational Performance: The Lack of Theoretical Background Guest (1997) pointed out that to improve our understanding of the impact of HRM on performance; we need a theory about HRM, a theory about performance, and a theory about how they are linked. Unfortunately, there has been a great deal of debates amongst leading researchers and practitioners about the concept and contributions of HRM practice in managing employees in overall organizational objectives (Loosemore, Dainty Lingard, 2003; Analoui, 1998; Sparrow Marchington, 1998). McCarthy and Stone (1986) argued that the concept of HRM is ambiguous and that its contribution to organizational performance remains unclear and is not well understood. In addition, Sparrow and Marchington (1998) pointed out that rather than adding value to the business through its strategic integration with managerial objectives, HRM can remain a disappointingly mechanistic function. Similarly, there is no universal theory about performance (Guest, 1997). It was proposed that the meaning of performance involves two dimensions; the types of criteria and the weight of each. Organizations have different interpretations of performance according to the sector of their industries. Service providers, for example, might consider customer satisfaction as their top performance indicator, while manufacturers might view inventory level as an important criterion to measure their performance level. In addition, some organizations put financial results on top of their performance indicator list and employee’s job satisfaction at the bottom, but others may view this in the opposite position. As a result, it is hard, if not impossible, to define the concept of performance that applicable for all organizations. The impact of HR practices on firm performance is without a doubt an important topic in the fields of human resource management, industrial relations, and industrial and organizational psychology (Huselid, 1995; Jones Wright, 1992). This literature, although largely conceptual, concludes that HR practices can help to create a source of sustained competitive advantage, especially when they are aligned with a firm’s competitive strategy (Jackson Schuler, 1995; Wright McMahan, 1992, both as cited in Huselid, 1995). Specifically, a large majority of published studies found an association between HR practices and firm performance, regardless of whether they are cross-sectional or longitudinal, whether conducted at establishment or company level, whether based on strong performance data or subjective estimates, whatever sector they are based on, whatever operational definition of HRM is used, and wherever they are conducted (Guest et al. , 2003). Nevertheless, despite the positive thrust of most empirical findings, Wood and de Menezes (1998, as cited in Guest et al. 2003) failed to find consistent associations between HRM and performance. Furthermore, Wood (1999) has also argued that the relationship between HRM and performance is relatively weak. One possible explanation lies in the various contingency factors, other than HR activities, that might contribute to organizational performance such as organizational culture (Kotter Heskett, 1992; Van der Post et al. , 1998), business strategy (Richard Brown Johnson, 1999), and political considerations (Ferris et al. 1998). ?Improvement Strategies: Is There One Best Way? Much of the research on the link between HRM and firm performance has looked at single HR practice such as compensation or selection, while others attempted to look on the impact of combining different HR practices to improve firm performance (Becker Gerhart, 1996). Pfeffer (1998, as cited in Tyson, 1997), for instance, put forward a seven-principle best practice which he believed is universally applicable. The seven best practice HRM elements include; employment security, selective hiring, self managed teams, high compensation contingent on organizational performance, extensive training, reduction of status difference, and information sharing. Theoretically, bundling several HR practices should produce greater performance effects than any of the individual human practices (Dyer Reeves, 1995). However, in reality, there is no single standardized bundle of HR strategies that is universally applicable for all organizations. Each firm might require different bundles of HR strategies to improve its organizational performance.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Construction And Understanding Of Childhood Social Work Essay

Construction And Understanding Of Childhood Social Work Essay In order to consider how child protection policy and practice has been shaped, a definition of child protection and significant harm and abuse is required. The Department for Education (DFE, 2011) defines child protection as the action that is carried out to safeguard children who are suffering, or are likely to suffer, significant harm. Furthermore the Children Act (1989) defines harm as ill-treatment including neglect, emotional, sexual and physical abuse. Interestingly, Parton et al (2012) suggested that determinations of what should be considered child abuse are socially constructed, and are therefore reflective of the culture and values at a specific moment in time. To begin, childhood is a status that is documented worldwide and throughout history, which sometimes sees the child as innocent ,vulnerable, a consumer, a worker alongside other household earners, a threat to society and it is a construction that changes over time and place (Prout, 2005). Historians of childhood have argued over the meaning, such as Aries (1960) cited by Veerman (1992, p5) stated the concept of childhood didnt exist before the seventeenth century; therefore children were mini adults with the same rights, duties and skills. This idea was supported by the poor law (1601) which was a formalised system of training children in trades to contribute to society when they grew up (Bloy, 2002). Another example came from Locke (1632-1734) and the Tabula Rasa model. This proposes that children were morally neutral and were the products of their parents (Horner, 2012). The nineteenth century showed it was the parents responsibility to offer love and pertinent correction, to bring out the good in their nature thus helping them to become contributing members of society. This could easily lead to blaming the parents as good or bad based on the behaviours of their child, since the child was not considered as his own agent. The 1834 Poor Law Reform Act would support Lockes idea and children who were sent to workhouses, would participate in schooling to imprint knowledge. Although this incurred a number of scandals, for example inmates eating the rotting flesh from bones, the governments responded by introducing sterner rules for those operating workhouses, along with regular inspections (cited by Berry 1999, p29). Fox Harding (1997) described this era as laissez faire which was bas ed on family privacy and minimal state intervention that allowed families lives to remain private and behind closed doors. An alternative concept from Rousseau (1712) suggested the idea of innocence; a child was born angelic until the world influenced them. This was significant in terms of child protection with the implementation childrens charities such as Save the Children (founded in 1919). They portrayed children in a variety of adult situations and as poor victims worthy of being rescued (Macek, 2006) using contemporary ideas of childhood. Interestingly the Children and Young Persons Act (1933) was introduced to protect the welfare of the child, including any person legally liable to have neglected them in a manner likely to cause injury to his health. Nonetheless it could be argued that the cause of injury may not have been fully understood considering caning in schools was common until 1987. However some may argue this was legalised abuse, and in direct contradiction to legislation put in place to protect children. Moving into the twentieth century took a wide shift from the laissez faire approach and along with the concept of childhood, became the notion of state paternalism. Child protection practice was based on extensive state intervention to protect children from poor parental care (Fox Harding, 1997). These changes led to a sharing of blame with their parents for children becoming anti-social (a demon) or a great achiever (an angel) in society. The demonic model illustrated by Pifer (2000) was already seen in childhood construction but blamed society, not the child, when as Rousseau noted is the romantic discourse that becomes tainted with the corrupt outside world. These historical concepts still dictated that children should be seen and not heard and every aspect of the childs life should be determined by their parents or guardians. Although the shift is evident, it could be argued that the laissez faire and paternalist perspective shared a common view of children having limited capacit y for independence and decision making. Pollock (1983) would argue that children were not miniature adults as Aries (1960) claimed, but actually were at a significantly a lower level of development and so had distinctive needs from adults. This suggests as immature people they could make mistakes and be excused from full responsibility for their actions. Given the current high profile debates on children, it is public outrage and moral panics in the media that frequently changes the way things are seen. The research into child deaths has prompted changes in legislation (Parton et al, 2012). Key events such as the death of Maria Coldwell (1974), led to specialist workers instead of generic workers who dealt with the elderly. They were specific to the child and encompassed the needs of the whole family. Serious case reviews in to a childs death was undertaken as a way of discovering how the tragedy occurred, who was responsible, what professionals were involved, rationalising individual actions and learning lessons for future practice (Rose and Barnes, 2008). The publics perception of social workers placed more pressure on the notion of identifying risk before the child died which developed many theories and models for the professional to practice. In contrast to the numerous child deaths, the Cleveland case in 1988 evidenced the over enthusiasm of state intervention. Children were removed from their families based on an anal reflex test to diagnose sexual abuse. The inquiry recommended greater rights for parents and children and suggests the separation from families was seen as abuse itself (Ashden, 2004). This, and proceeding enquires into the deaths of children, offered dilemmas for social workers representing the most visible agencies within the child protection system, in terms of whether a child should be removed or not. This event was a major policy driver and is reflected in the Children Act 1989, where parents rights have been replaced with responsibility in ensuring children turn out to be good citizens of society. However it could be argued that in practice today the Cleveland event still carries stigma with parents believing their children are going to be taken into care. Given the models of childhood outlined in previous paragraphs it is quite predictable that children appear to fit within a particular construct. However children such the murderers of Jamie Bulger in 1993 were children carrying out unthinkable, far from innocent acts. These children had a dual status; they committed a crime as an adult yet still a child in need of protection. Society wanted to look at their background to decide if watching horror movies or having divorced parents or poor discipline made them kill a little boy. The thought in the media flowed from born bad, to being made bad which is the nature nurture debate. Moral panic through media fed into this case and although historically the view had been to protect children, society shifted to the concept of demonising children, newspaper headlines branding them as wicked and evil (Bracchi, 2010). It is interesting that throughout history, legislation was implemented to protect children yet it conflicts with criminal law, as it does not recognise them as children over ten years of age (Molan, 2008). It could be argued that criminal law agrees with Aries and children are mini adults, yet social workers guidance refers to children up to the age of seventeen. One could question how professionals can work in a multiagency way when conflicting legislation cannot agree what age a child is. Further spotlight cases such as Victoria Climbie (2003) highlighted failings of multi-agency workers (Lamming 2003) and facilitated to shape the next change in legislation. The Every Child Matters green paper which outlined five outcomes to be achieved by all children was enshrined in law as part of The Childrens Act (2004). These were defined as, stay safe, be healthy, enjoy and achieve, achieve economic wellbeing, and make a positive contribution (Knowles, 2006) which gave professionals direction on the minimum requirements for every child, and allowed social workers to intervene to meet these needs in child protection practice. Nonetheless, the coalition government in 2010 abolished this agenda (McDermid, 2012) suggesting that families are not as important, even though it has underpinned social work practice for a number of years. Nevertheless child deaths continued to be a growing problem, the Baby Peter case (2008) indicated that individuals are failing children and again multi-agency communication is poor in assessing risk. Another case that followed approximately a year later was the Edlington boys (2009) who tortured two young boys. Society then blamed foster placements and care systems suggesting they do not work and foster placements are as bad as the families they were removed from. Cases such as these developed blame culture, where children were perceived as being failed by the government workers; usually the social workers less often the police and the politicians (Community Care, 2012). The public outcry and criticisms of social services which followed high profile cases of child abuse make social workers practice to err on the side of caution. This suggests the romantic concept of childhood (i.e. protection of innocence), came to the forefront and children were seen as vulnerable and in need of pro tection. It appears that each disaster that happens the social construct of children changes. Indeed, researchers into twenty-first century childhood such as Sue Palmer (2006) refers to a Toxic Childhood which is the harm society is causing to children through a competitive, consumer driven, screen-based lifestyle. The media and internet evidence how much it has made it possible for children to consider adult ideas and behaviours, alcohol, sexual activity, drug use and teenage violence that show that distinctions between adulthood and childhood are fading. Nevertheless it could be debated that contradictory attitudes remain commonplace with children being constructed as innocent little angels and little devils, innately capable of the most awful types of crime until the adults in society influenced them. Despite these criticisms the families that children live in are also judged to be secretive and deliberate abusers. As a result children may grow into poor citizens due to not being protected from their families. There is a notion of good families and bad families and very often poor families are classed as poor parents and certain constructions take place without the family even being assessed. To exemplify Tucks (2002) identified a connection between all forms of abuse and social deprivation, but a possible explanation for this is that perpetrators target vulnerable children or women to secure access to children; socially deprived neighbourhoods are characterised by relatively large numbers of lone parents. Through the pressures of their circumstances and in family crisis, parents had become caught up in a child protection system that was more attuned to assessing risk than to bringing out the best in parents struggling in adversity (DoH, 1995). Moreover Owen and Pritchard (1993) identified the difficulties in classifying at risk in terms of the criteria for assessing the levels of risk and what constitutes abuse. The role of professionals holding varying opinions and attitudes towards what constitutes abuse and risk could be argued that this in itself reduces the identification of risk to a child. Nonetheless professionals are still expected to protect children by the Children Act 1989 which outlines significant harm, but is very ambiguous and there is broad scope for authorities to further define what constitutes a child in need (Brandon et al 1999). The Munro report (2011) on Child Protection agrees that social work involves working with this uncertainty and not able to see what goes on in families which suggests little shift . The defensive practice comes from workers who are expected to manage this uncertainty and the issue is that evidence of abuse and neglect is not clearly labelled. Since the implementation of the Children Act 1989 more emphasis was placed on the childs rights but has become very controversial. The idea of protecting children and giving them rights may become problematic for adults in terms of taking childrens rights seriously. This could be that children have been under-represented in social theory and policy for many years). It could also be, that adults may be reluctant to relinquish power to the children because they still assume they know what is best for children as the early historians suggest. Franklin (2002) suggests a conflict between adults rights and childrens rights could offer explanations for demonization of children. Another idea could be that giving children rights takes away a childs childhood. This may have been viewed from the idealistic construction of childhood as a time of innocence where they consider that children should not be concerned with important decision-making and responsibility. To further support childrens rights, the children Act 2004 updated the legislation to include the abolishment of physical punishment (NSPCC, 2012). However, Owen and Pritchards (1983) idea of cultural relativism whereby specific behaviours in some families is attributed to cultural practice, question the concept of what how significant harm can actually be measured. In cases of child abuse, black and ethnic minority children are therefore at a higher risk because warning signs that would otherwise have been picked up are ignored and accepted to cultural practices and norms. For instance Rogers, Hevey and Ash (1989) state that the beating of West Indian children can be viewed as traditional use of chastisement within that culture, rather than observed as physical abuse of children. Owen and Pritchard (1983) propose this aspect to racist beliefs and stereotyping, where culture is considered deviant rather than the actions of a caregiver. Conversely Munro (2008) considers Effective Child Protection and points out the significance on the value of relationships between families and the worker and suggests this leads to better outcomes by understanding the families and cultures. An effective assessment and intervention in child protection draws from having good interactions and in turn aids parents to disclose information and collaborate with authorities. It could be argued if a worker does not believe in certain cultural practices that children could become at risk when maybe they are not. Another point to consider is the risk posed by professionals that work with children; previously society has created an assumption that the rich, social workers, teachers and other professionals that work in child focused roles follow the legislation on protecting our children from significant harm. Yet through the power of trust professionals appear to abuse safe spaces designed for children. For example the police report in to the murder of Jessica Chapman and Holly Wells by the school caretaker in 2002, identified significant failings with regard to police vetting procedures (HMIC, 2004). The Sexual Offences Act 2003 which included offences of grooming and abusing positions of trust was incorporated with a vetting and barring system to adults working with children and introduced into the safeguarding vulnerable groups Act 2006 (NSPCC, 2012). Equally Nursery manager Vanessa George in 2009 abused children in her setting. The review found a systemic failure in communication throughout and highlighted a common theme of assumption provided a fruitful environment in which to abuse, a point that has been proficiently highlighted by the mainstream press. The child protection policies and procedures were inadequate and rarely followed, as she feared children would be moved to other settings. The report highlighted how culture had within the nursery preventing staff from challenging Georges inappropriate behaviour. Cases such as this called for a review of vetting adults who work with children and formed a piece of legislation, the protection of freedoms Act (2012) which focuses on roles working closely with vulnerable groups. Some children related posts such as governors and school inspectors were being removed from the lists although they require having contact with children (Kelly, 2012). Additionally supervised volunteers will no longer be classed as working in regulated activity. Therefore, individuals barred from working in regulated activity can still volunteer at your school, as long as they are supervised. It could be argued that although the government is keen to scale back the cost of vetting, it does not take into account the risk of grooming which is not negated by supervision. Furthermore, the new process does not allow schools to check the barred list when recruiting volunteers which suggests it is providing a false sense of security for all. A further report into child protection by Munro A child centred practice in 2011, established that a universal approach to child protection is preventing the main focus of the child. Munro recommended that the Government and local authorities should continually learn from what has happened in the past, however this could be difficult when cases such as Jamie Buglers that buried the hatchet to protect the boys. One could question what professionals can learn from such secretive cases. Additionally, it could be argued that Munros child centred approach offers a potential negative impact on children and professionals. For instance, if the government removes the prescriptive practice that professionals may be using as guidance, this could create the potential to miss the signs of a child being abused based on judgement alone. Having considered this idea, future risks assessment needs to change a theoretical and practical model for possible state intervention in cases where a caregivers ability to care for a child is questioned. The British government will be pivotal to play a major role in reforming existing legislation and constructing new strong legislation to allow involvement by care services in the most high risk cases of child abuse. This request upon the government is an outcome of the philosophy of risk now prevalent in the UK, where it is assumed that the government has the ability to foresee and prevent abuse and maltreatment which holds the government when this does not happen. In conclusion, the historical views of childhood can be seen throughout the numerous ideological discourses and demonstrate how societys constructions of childhood can, has and will carry on to influence laws and legislation regarding the ways in which child protection is shaped. Although it is recognised that childhood warrants some degree of protective status, socioeconomic and cultural circumstances do affect young childrens behaviour and the way professionals practice. Those changed conditions also influence adult beliefs about rearing children and how protecting children should be. The emphasis on risk and assessing risk has changed over time, what was a risk in the 1980s is very different to what is a risk today. As outlined there are some recurrent issues such as the recognition of significant harm, taking appropriate action, effective communication and achieving an appropriate balance between supporting families and disruptive intervention to safeguard and promote childrens welfare. Nevertheless child protection has been around for a number of years and indicates that there is a correlation between legislation, society and the construct of childhood which continually mirrors each other.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

terrorism Essay -- essays research papers

Effects of Terrorism Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. --FBI Definition On Tuesday September 11th, 2001 our Nation was forever changed. Following the single largest terrorist attack ever experienced by this country, thousands are dead or missing, tens of thousands of people in this country know someone who was killed or injured, and many more have witnessed or heard about the attack through the media. The impact of this magnitude of terrorist attack will affect people at all levels of involvement: victims, bereaved family members, friends, rescue workers, emergency medical and mental health care providers, witnesses to the event, volunteers, members of the media, the United States of America, and the entire World. Terrorism takes away a sense of security and safety at both the individual and community level, which effects society. It can challenge the natural need of humans for this world to be predictable, orderly and controllable. Studies have shown that deliberate violence creates longer lasting mental health effects than natural disasters or accidents.1 1 Scott, R., Brooks, N. & McKinlay, W. (1995). Post-traumatic morbidity in a civilian community: A follow-up at 3 years. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, p. 412. Consequences both for individuals and the community are prolonged, and survivors often feel that injustice has been done to them. This can lead to prejudice, anger, frustration, helplessness, fear, and a strong desire for revenge. Acting on these feelings and need for revenge can increase feelings of anger and guilt, rather than decreasing them. Society’s ability to naturally recover from traumatic events are strong.2 For people directly involved, fear, anxiety, re-experiencing, and urges to avoid, will gradually decrease over time. Research has shown that those who are most at risk for more severe traumatic stress reactions such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are those who have experienced the greatest magnitude of exposure to the traumatic event, such as victims and their families.3 Many surviving rescue workers will also have direct relationships, or indirect exposure to those who are missing or killed, and will therefore be coping with ... chemical or biological agents: psychiatric aspects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156. North, C., Nixon S., Shariat, S., Mallonee, S., McMillen, J., Spitzanagel, E., & Smith, E. (1999). Psychiatric disorders among survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282. Pfefferbaum, B., Nixon, S., Tucker, P., Tivis,R., Moore, V., Gurwitch, R., Pynoos, R., & Geis, H. (1999). Posttraumatic stress responses in bereaved children after the Oklahoma City bombing. Journal of the American Academy Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38. Pfefferbaum, B., Gurwitch, R., McDonald, N., Leftwih, M.,Sconzo, G., Messenbaugh, A., Schultz, R. (2000). Posttraumatic stress among children after the death of a friend or acquaintance in a terrorist bombing. Psychiatric Services, 51. Smith, D., Christiansen, E., Vincent, R., & Hann, N. (1999). Population effects of the bombing of Oklahoma City. Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, 92. Tucker, P., Dickson, W., Pfefferbaum, B., McDonald, N., & Allen, G. (1997). Traumatic reactions as predictors of posttraumatic stress six months after the Oklahoma City bombing. Psychiatric Services, 48.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Greatest Tunnel Ever! Essay -- Personal Narrative, essay about mys

The day had that perfect quality you always associate with childhood memories. I was eight, maybe nine, at the time of this particular memory, a small, ponytailed, freckled child with dirty legs and dirtier arms and face, full of energy and hope all children possess when looking forward to playing with other children. The sun shone through marshmallow-like clouds, and although it was only early afternoon, the tar road had started to bubble under my feet. The ponies tethered at the side of the road nickered at me in hope of an apple, but I was in too much of a hurry to oblige. Johnny, my equally dirty playmate, met me at the end of their driveway, his grin gaping where his big brother, Eddie, had accidentally knocked out his front teeth with a nine iron. "Let's check out those tunnels Eddie built last night," he demanded. The thought held no appeal for me whatsoever, but rather than show my reluctance and chance losing my only playmate, I pasted on a big grin of my own and followed him. We climbed the sloping lawn to the barn's entrance, where the doors, which were a color somewhere between grey and brown, stretched, from my viewpoint, to heaven. Johnny pulled on one door with all the strength in his puny body, but it refused to budge until I added my strength to his. Slowly, ever so slowly, it groaned a horrid sounding groan while begrudgingly swinging enough for us to squeeze through, scratching both stomachs and backsides in the process. The smell of the barn struck us a terrible blow after the air of the summer outside. The stench of horse-flesh and manure filled the air, accompanied by the smells of overly-sweet straw and pungent leather harnesses. The stenches filled our noses and pe... ...ever built!" Johnny cried. I was amazed to see his flushed face devoid of any sign of illness or relief, but full of some fanatical form of worship for the maze which had nearly killed us. "Let's go through again before supper," he demanded. "I can't," I replied, pulling stray wisps of straw from my hair. "I have to be home early today." "Well, okay, I guess," he sulked, "but tomorrow for sure. Come on, I'll race you down!" And he was off in a flash toward the ladder. I let him win, just for good measure. The sun was overly bright to my contracted pupils, but I didn't notice. I was trying to think of a reason not to go through that particular version of hell again, but a reason wouldn't come, and I knew that when tomorrow got here, that's exactly where I'd be. Maybe Johnny would even let me go first. The Greatest Tunnel Ever! Essay -- Personal Narrative, essay about mys The day had that perfect quality you always associate with childhood memories. I was eight, maybe nine, at the time of this particular memory, a small, ponytailed, freckled child with dirty legs and dirtier arms and face, full of energy and hope all children possess when looking forward to playing with other children. The sun shone through marshmallow-like clouds, and although it was only early afternoon, the tar road had started to bubble under my feet. The ponies tethered at the side of the road nickered at me in hope of an apple, but I was in too much of a hurry to oblige. Johnny, my equally dirty playmate, met me at the end of their driveway, his grin gaping where his big brother, Eddie, had accidentally knocked out his front teeth with a nine iron. "Let's check out those tunnels Eddie built last night," he demanded. The thought held no appeal for me whatsoever, but rather than show my reluctance and chance losing my only playmate, I pasted on a big grin of my own and followed him. We climbed the sloping lawn to the barn's entrance, where the doors, which were a color somewhere between grey and brown, stretched, from my viewpoint, to heaven. Johnny pulled on one door with all the strength in his puny body, but it refused to budge until I added my strength to his. Slowly, ever so slowly, it groaned a horrid sounding groan while begrudgingly swinging enough for us to squeeze through, scratching both stomachs and backsides in the process. The smell of the barn struck us a terrible blow after the air of the summer outside. The stench of horse-flesh and manure filled the air, accompanied by the smells of overly-sweet straw and pungent leather harnesses. The stenches filled our noses and pe... ...ever built!" Johnny cried. I was amazed to see his flushed face devoid of any sign of illness or relief, but full of some fanatical form of worship for the maze which had nearly killed us. "Let's go through again before supper," he demanded. "I can't," I replied, pulling stray wisps of straw from my hair. "I have to be home early today." "Well, okay, I guess," he sulked, "but tomorrow for sure. Come on, I'll race you down!" And he was off in a flash toward the ladder. I let him win, just for good measure. The sun was overly bright to my contracted pupils, but I didn't notice. I was trying to think of a reason not to go through that particular version of hell again, but a reason wouldn't come, and I knew that when tomorrow got here, that's exactly where I'd be. Maybe Johnny would even let me go first.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Plastic Production Essay -- Environment, Fossil Fuels

1.0 Research Background The term of plastic has attracted more attention in the literature for the past 100 years since the introduction of the first industrial plastic at the latter part of the 19th century. John Wesley Hyatt, an American, finally came upon the solution in year 1869 with celluloid which makes its debut in plastic industry (McCord, 1964). Ever since after, there have been several milestones in the history of material science as the invention of plastic has, arguably, touched more lives than any other technological breakthrough. Plastics play a significant role across the environmental, societal and economic dimensions of sustainable development. Our modern lifestyle would not be possible without plastics. Plastics have proliferated so readily throughout the modern world because of their inherent properties such as lightweight, versatility and durability (Fortelnà ½ et. al., 2004). By possessing these advantageous characteristics, plastics has become a good candidate for replacement of other materials that range from simple plastic parts such as household storage containers, to sophisticated devices such as heart replacement valves. It is this range of properties together with their low cost that has driven the annual worldwide demand for plastics to reach at least 308 million tonnes by 2010 (Andrady and Neal, 2009). 1.1 Impacts of Plastic Production Although plastics have had a remarkable impact on our culture and lifestyle, the production and use of plastics pose increasing threat to environment. Most plastics are made from fossil fuels and thus plastics production has an impact on oil consumption, both as a raw material and to deliver energy for the manufacturing process (van der Voet et al, 2003). The proce... chapter. The literature review of the related subjects has been outlined in Chapter 2. The main objectives of this chapter are to present the latest knowledge and studies from other researchers relating to the feasibility of performing reprocessing operations in the plastic industry particularly in recycling of plastic and the implementation of Taguchi method in optimizing the injection moulding processing parameters to enhance the mechanical properties of the recycled plastic products. The following Chapter 3 delineates the methodology used in this research wherein every procedure of the experiments is explained in details. Chapter 4 analyzes and discusses the results obtained from the experiments based on the Taguchi method and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Chapter 5 highlights the conclusion on this research work and ends with the future work continuation.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Annotated Bibliography: How Is Tv Bad or Good? Essay

How is TV bad/good? Do you learn from watching TV? What shows are best to watch? These are just some of the questions that this annotated bibliography will answer for you and help you decide whether TV is good or bad. This bibliography can be used by anyone who wants to decide if watching TV is good or bad, either for their children, or themselves. Johnson, Steven. â€Å"Watching TV Makes You Smarter.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 277-294. Print. The argument in Johnsons article is that media has had to get more cognitively challenging to keep pulling the attention of viewers. He explains how he believes watching television can help make you a smarter person because it makes you use inferences, track relationships, and makes the reader think by tracking multiple threads. He uses examples from several television shows and series that may be affecting our brain activity. He makes many good persuasive points in his argument that TV isn’t necessarily a bad thing, but too much of anything is never a good thing. Peacocke, Antonia. â€Å"Family Guy and Freud: Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 299-311. Print. Antonia Peacocke describes the difficulty that the television show â€Å"Family Guy† has went through, having been cancelled twice. She describes how the jokes in â€Å"Family Guy† have a more insightful meaning. Peacocke talks about her own struggle with the shows seemingly offensive humor but then how she realizes the underlying â€Å"satire† of the jokes. She sees some of the steps taken due to the fact that the content of some of the jokes are not for younger audiences. She ends her article explaining that she feels that there is more to the jokes on Family Guy than the offensive rudeness that people like to point out, but she still finds that people still need to realize that some jokes do go too far. Stevens, Dana. â€Å"Thinking Outside The Idiot Box.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 295-298. Print. Stevens explains in this article that turning off the TV until Sunday will not make you any dumber. She talks about how children are â€Å"fresh meat† for marketing industries and shows like â€Å"Teletubbies†, encourage and teach children the basics of â€Å"vegging† out. She is pointing out that shows on TV do not necessarily always do a person good but quite the opposite. She also demonstrates her frustration that many people think that TV is fine especially when it pertains to a nature show. She describes a recent visit to the airport and there w ere a number of people watching a TV that portrayed animals. It made her realize that watching animal shows are fine, but wonders why people think this when in all reality it could be a violent animal show. She is insisting that there are many people who are offended by many things and each person needs to be sensitive to what they play on their TVs. Zinser, Jason. â€Å"The Good The Bad The Daily Show.† They Say / I Say With Readings. Ed. Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, Russel Durst. New York: Norton, 2012. 363-379. Print. Zinser sees â€Å"The Daily Show† as a combined form of entertainment that is both beneficial and damaging to society. Beneficial, in that, the show sparks viewer interest in current events, particularly for younger viewers who might not watch so-called real news. Damaging, in that, the show relies on â€Å"deception and dilution† for its platform.

Review of Literature on Employ Satisfaction

Attention: Nadeem Yousaf Students:Noreen OrcineP12094955 Robert Ngu P11015920 Federico ColomboP12094924 Prakash Regmi P12094665 Sanjay Maharjan P12085525 Dewan Rahman P12094756 Philippe Colas P12094742 Course name: MSc. International Business and Management – 2013 Module name:Operations and Human Resource Management (Evening Class) Module Code:CORP 5041 Assignment: Group Critical Analysis Project Theme: Key factors of employee satisfaction and its impacts to company success.Word Count: 2917 words Articles Reviewed: The Impact of Age and Education on the Level of Satisfaction and Motivation Among Employees Employee satisfaction, intrapreneurship and firm growth: a model Job satisfaction and quality management: an empirical analysis Job Satisfaction in Public Sector and Private Sector and Private Sector: A Comparison The effects of commitment to corporate vision on employee satisfaction with their organization Implementing Quality Management Practices without Sacrificing Employe e SatisfactionThe relationship Between Pay satisfaction & Job Satisfaction Table of Contents 1. 0 Introduction3 2. 0 Stimuli of Employee Satisfactions and Impact3 2. 1 Effects of Commitment to Corporate Vision on Employee Satisfaction4 2. 2 Pay Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction5 2. 3 Impacts of Age and Level of Education in Employee Satisfaction5 2. 4 Intrapreneurship and Firm Growth as a Factor of Job Satisfaction6 2. 5 Relationship between Quality Management and Job Satisfaction7 2. 6 Comparison of employee satisfaction between Public and Private Sectors8 . 0 Comparison, contradiction and Evaluation9 4. 0 Conclusion13 5. 0 References15 APPENDIX 119 1. 0 Introduction It is widely accepted that the employees’ job satisfaction is one of the most important elements of achieving success for an organization. In today’s organization, where company leadership is transforming from traditional styles to more collaborative style (Christensen, 2009), employee satisfaction is bei ng given due consideration based on the concept of happy people brings happy customers and growth (Blanchard, 2004).Though De Menezes (2012) found that the job satisfaction among employees have a clear and consistent connection to company's productivity, but Schein (1995) believes management has over time pondered on best practices that increases productivity and with numerous theories, espoused on the significance of people in organization, very few managers recognize employees as capital investment not as a cost to be controlled and minimized. In this paper many influencing factors of employee satisfaction will be analyzed combined with their affects to organizational success. . 0 Stimuli of Employee Satisfactions and Impact There are many factors that somehow intrinsically and extrinsically keep engagement in the process of employees’ job satisfaction. Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene theory identifies satisfiers or motivator factors as achievement, recognition, work it self, responsibility, advancement and growth, on the other hand, dissatisfiers or hygiene factors as company policy, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relationship at work, salary and benefits, and job security (Gitman et al 2008).Moreover, according to Lavigna (2010) ; De Menezes (2012) factors such as commitment to corporate vision, leadership, work life balance, training and education, participatory management and employee empowerment strongly contribute to employee satisfaction. This literature will be investigating and analyzing the factors such as age, level of education, intrapreneurship, pay satisfaction, quality management, commitment to corporate vision and aspect of public and private sectors. 2. Effects of Commitment to Corporate Vision on Employee Satisfaction The mission and vision statement of a company gives a sense of purpose, values, and behavioral standards; and increases employees’ focus on organizational strategy and direction (Slack et. al, 2010). While ascertaining employee satisfaction, companies need to show commitment by being effective, and show continuance commitment by encouraging workers to be attached emotionally to company’s values (Allen et al. , 1997).And to measure satisfaction in an organization, management commitment to achieving results motivates employees to perform better, according to Slack et al. (2010), henceforth commitment of organizations and employee satisfaction have a positive relationship with promise. There are two strong connections with employee satisfaction relating to employee rating of the company based on how committed it is to its philosophy of caring, sharing, trust and respect; and the ability of the company to compete with others. This was supported by Meglino et al. (1998) by stating that the relationship between effective communication, worker satisfaction and the level in which values and views of employees corresponds with each other creates an atmosphere of understandi ng a corporation that leads to improved performance and productivity among satisfied employees. 2. 2 Pay Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction Different people have different views on the source of their motivation to work. Here we find different contradictory results while one study suggests level of income increases the level of satisfaction and the other study finds no satisfactory correlations or different view of income’s importance.Some find job as a source of identity, but sometimes money actually is the commonly cited reason (Hulin, 2002 cited in Judge, et al. , 2010). Money cannot ensure the subjective well-being or happiness as finding shows that a lottery winner is no happier than before they won the lottery (Brickman, et al. , 1978 cited in Judge, et al. , (2010). Contradictorily, another report suggests that the richest Americans are happier than average ones (Cummins, 2000; Diener et al. , 1985 as cited in Judge et al. , 2010) and average Americans are happier than poor Americans.Overall it is assumed that, pay level is positively but not significantly correlated with both pay satisfaction and job satisfactions. 2. 3 Impacts of Age and Level of Education in Employee Satisfaction Satisfaction expresses the level of agreements between the expectations of a worker from his job and the reward that the job provides (Paul, 2012). Now, how does a factor like age affect the level of employee satisfaction? Kristin et al. (2004) cited in Paul (2012) found that the overall job satisfaction decreases after the age of 45;  perceptions of management fairness and problem resolution also decrease with age.It is generally believed that job satisfaction increases linearly with age (Clark et al, 1996). Paul (2012) discovered that age influences the level of motivation among employees, for instance, younger employees felt more motivated to extra work, while older employees were less eager to do so. Level of education is also one of the factors that can power th e way employee satisfaction is perceived. Paul (2012) stated that the level of motivation also varies with the educational qualification of the employees; for example, employees who have only matriculated were the most motivated about ork and taking extra work, on the other hand the most qualified employees of the organization were the most unwilling to take extra work, in comparison to the less educated ones. This finding is enriched by Metle (2001) and said that the job satisfaction declines with increasing levels of education. 2. 4 Intrapreneurship and Firm Growth as a Factor of Job Satisfaction Entrepreneurs within the organization are, in fact, the valuable assets in terms of company’s growth; and there is a direct relationship between intrapreneurship and job satisfaction in the context of productivity and growth, according to Antoncic et al. 2012), when key factors such as the level of employees general satisfaction with work, employee relationships, employee remunerat ions, benefits and organizational culture and employee loyalty are put to play together. An organization whose values and interest corresponds to that of employees needs, generally has a high employee satisfaction rate as reflected in the attraction selection attrition model (ASA); which states that, â€Å"people in an organization are unique in that they are the ones attracted to, chosen by, and who choose to remain with an organization† (Lievens et al. 1995).Employees of such caliber are a true competitive advantage of the company (Antoncic et al. , 2011). Intrapreneurs are considered to be entrepreneurs in an organization. It is the outcome of firms pursuing new opportunities through a gradual departure from the customary by encouraging employees to be innovative. To show how employee satisfaction result in growth, Shaw et al. (1998) as cited in Antoncic et al. (2011) examined practices where management instills the possibility of education and training, adequate pay, bene fits, encourage high level of motivation, and the willingness of employees to invest in their own knowledge and skills.This results to employee satisfactions that in turn increases performance, and contributes to company growth; therefore, job satisfaction and performance are strongly related as they both result to growth of the company (Antoncic et al. , 2011). 2. 5 Relationship between Quality Management and Job Satisfaction Employee satisfaction and quality management are thought to be correlated to some extent. Previous research studies on employee job satisfaction have ndeavored to find link between quality management and job satisfaction; for instance, Akdere (2009) cited in De Menezes (2012) found that customer satisfaction, which is the ultimate goal of quality management, is strongly associated with employee job satisfaction. Though number of research have been carried out in past to find this relationship yet there are mixed results. According to Guimareas (1996) cited in Mehra et al (2011), implementing a Total Quality Management program resulted in high job satisfaction, more job involvement, large organizational commitment and increased desire to stay in the firm.On the other hand, there are some other important aspects of quality management like cost reduction and increased productivity that can stress up employee and consequently might bring dissatisfaction to work. This argument was supported by Green (2006), Landsbergis et al. (1999) and Parker (2003) as cited in De Menezes (2012); and they said, â€Å"Performance gains may be achieved at the expense of employee well-being†. Moreover, Kivimaki et al (1997) cited in Mehra et al (2011) has also said that adopting Total Quality Management in an organization leads to decreased job satisfaction.Therefore, the total quality management of an organization can actually sometimes become the reason for not supporting employees to enjoy their work, however, Total Quality Management can be achieved in an organization without achieving complete employee satisfaction, for example, De Menezes (2012) found that there is no positive association between quality management and employee job satisfaction in many British workplaces in 2004.Total Quality Management is a management philosophy not a short term program or intervention skim that can be applied to organization across industries, cultures and nations but there should also be adjustment in Total Quality Management according to the structure of firms, strategy and environmental conditions to ensure that the employees are satisfied (Rungtusanatham et al, 2005 as cited in Mehra et al 2011). 2. 6 Comparison of employee satisfaction between Public and Private SectorsPublic and private sectors provide scopes in different ways, making it difficult to be pro or against the two very different administration forms. The Public sector is said to be more divided than organized due to the various sub divisions included in the operation of th e public sector and this division creates a problem in the long run; in contrast the Private Sector is also divided, yet it is divided into departments, which work closely with each other and have a coherent working structure (Kumari et al. 2011). Overall it can be said that while the the public sector has maintained the existing as well as the creation of new jobs throughout a recession, as the private sector significantly has significantly been cutting jobs since the dawn of the 2008 recession (Zuckerman, 2011). So, it can be understood that the Public sector jobs are generally more stable compared to the private sector, and this factor contributes to both positive and negative perceived job satisfaction in these two sectors.There are also different motivational reasons behind the employees’ choice of sector in which he or she wishes to work, and there are different expectations to be met by each sector in order to insure the employees’ ultimate job satisfaction. For example, Kumari et al. (2011) found that socio-economic and cultural structures of a country essentially lead citizen’s perception of job satisfaction in both public and private sectors. 3. 0 Comparison, contradiction and EvaluationMany studies previously done by several researchers found that the satisfaction among employees has clear and consistent connection to the company’s productivity and eventually the success of an organization largely depends on employee satisfaction (Hsu and Wang, 2008; Culbertson, 2009; and Korunka et al, 2003 as cited in De Menezes, 2012). In addition to that, Gregory (2011) has also identified that employee satisfaction is essential to the success of any business.For example, American budget airlines South-west Airlines, one of the most consistently successful airlines in the history of aviation, implies that employee satisfaction is one of the key components of its past, present, and future success (Cardy et al 2011). Although, many acad emics have found a correlation between employee satisfaction and organizational performance, there has been an opposition to this view and that has called for an extensive study, as employee satisfaction has little or no influence in the performance of an organization in certain industries.For example Ryanair, an European budget airlines, made financial gains without giving much attention to its employee; ‘‘the high employee turnover at Ryanair points to the dissatisfaction that the employees are experiencing and the common complaints of employees leaving Ryanair is the oppressive work environment and practices, low pay and the lack of training and development programs for employees’’ (Thinking Bookworm, 2012). This argument was appreciated by Mathieu et al (1990) as cited in Yee et al. (2008), where it was said that the employee satisfaction has little direct influence on business performance in most instances.From the perspective of strategic operations m anagement, Fisher at al. (1992) cited in Yee at al (2008) stated that employee satisfaction is not achieved without a cost, in a view of that fact, reducing expenses on employees is a viable choice for achieving operation efficiency. As reflected by De Menezes (2012), in which he ascertains that some aspect of total quality management such as cost reduction and increased productivity can stress up employee and consequently might bring dissatisfaction to work. This would mean that employee satisfaction and operation efficiency are inversely correlated.However, Mehra and Ranganathan (2011) suggest that implementing total quality management can have positive affect in job satisfaction if components like employee empowerment, teamwork, top management commitment can be developed within the organization. In the public sector, however, training and personal development was found to be the most important factor on employee satisfaction as training of workforce provides various benefits to o rganizations such as fewer production errors, increased productivity, decreased turnover and improved safety (Turkyilmaz, 2011).So it is true that, investment on employees’ training can also be fruitful to operation efficiency. When it is about the pay satisfaction it is said that high pay does not always lead to job satisfaction. Mondrow (2011), states that, pay may help to determine if an applicant accepts a job offer, but salary has little effect on one's job satisfaction. An individual can be satisfied with the amount of pay he/she is receiving but intrinsic rewards and culture-fit have been found to be better predictors of job satisfaction.Pay will not motivate employees and human resource professionals need to ensure that managers comprehend this. High level of pay does not ensure the happiness or satisfaction among employees as job satisfaction focus rather on culture and reward systems (Mondrow, 2011). To compare with Facebook, Google has paid lower wages to its emplo yees but providing vast benefits had caused employees to accept reduction on their wages because it provides them job satisfaction fostering by company culture whereas Facebook is found with less employees’ satisfaction though the level of pay is slightly higher (Huffingpost 2012).However, Pelit et al. , (2011) has said that though the unfair pay can be a negative aspect of employee satisfaction but correlation and regression analyses indicate that psychological and behavioral empowerment has a significant effect on job satisfaction, and the effect is much greater when psychological and behavioral empowerment are taken as a whole. To prove the importance of empowerment in the company’s success Eesley et al. 2006) has said that intrapreneurship is the practice of creating new business products and opportunities in an organization through proactive empowerment; and intrapreneurship is propelled by an individual's or a team's willingness to take calculated risks and act t o create business opportunities that serve an organization's needs for growth and improvement.The development of entrepreneurial activities and orientations in the organization are principally persuaded with the elements of employee satisfaction like general satisfaction with work; employee relationships; remuneration, benefits and organizational culture; and employee loyalty (Antoncic et al. , 2011). According to De Meneze (2012) it is anticipated that organizations where the work force is more satisfied will show higher levels of commitment to corporate vision, less absenteeism and a productive work force.On the other hand, in an interview (Appendix 1) Andersen said, â€Å"I don’t necessarily need a satisfied work force, because satisfied work force is just sitting and waiting around, and eventually they’ll be leaving. Here I want somebody who is hungry, eager, jumps out of the bed in the morning and rush to work to do a good job. † So in practical situations, organizations are not really pleased in having just satisfied employees, they’re akin to employees showing eagerness and desire to come to work for success.Earlier studies by Brown et al (1993) cited in Yee et al (2008) have also found that there is no clear relationship between employees’ satisfaction and performance. However, it is reasonable to think that in certain industries, where there is direct contact with customers, the relation of employee satisfaction to company’s success can be higher (Yee at al. 2008). For instance, studies by Wan (2006) in the U. S. forest products industry have shown that there were differences in job satisfaction of the employees across the different levels of income, occupation and age.Moreover, education and gender had no significant effects on job satisfaction. No evidence was found that higher levels of education were related to higher job satisfaction. 4. 0 Conclusion The correlation between employee satisfaction and diffe rent factors like age group and education level, entrepreneurship, quality management, public and private sector, corporate vision and pay satisfaction has been analyzed to evaluate the effect of job satisfaction in company’s success.Based on the research findings it is clear that there is positive affects in job satisfaction but it can be highly influenced by certain aspects like top management commitment, leadership style, motivation factors, organizational culture and external environment. Likewise, this literature found that employee satisfaction has shown to be a key success factor to most organizations. It is well documented that the more satisfied employees are, the more motivated they feel to perform at work, and ultimately reach company’s goals leading to corporate success.Motivational factors such as recognition of work, opportunity for advancement, professional growth and responsibility will remain the guiding principles of any firm that aims to achieve a pe rsonal growth and stability. However, it is still doubtful how relevant employee satisfaction is to bring success in certain circumstances or industries. Also, private and public sectors showed considerable differences in the level of overall job satisfaction that they derived from the facets of their jobs like motivational factors; working conditions; promotional opportunities; relationship with co-workers and job security.Some researchers have found that the correlation between employee satisfaction and an organizational performance do not always go hand in hand. As economies around the world encounter uncertainty in global markets and companies try to find different ways to reduce cost, which in many cases have resulted in the reduction of the work force. This has resulted dissatisfaction among the employees in various level. Nevertheless, this generation of unsatisfied employees has not yet shown clear repercussions in organization success.Although this topic can be controversia l, which generalize the scope of further research to understand how satisfied employees could lead to business success, and comprehend how different factors have higher influence on employee satisfaction. 5. 0 References Allen, N. J. , ; Meyer, J. P. (1997). Commitment in the Workplace: Theory, Research and Applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Antoncic J. A, Antoncic, B. (2011) Employee Satisfaction, Intrapreneurship and Firm Growth; A Model. 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B. , 2011. The Great Jobs Recession Goes On. U. S. News ; World Report,  pp. 1 APPENDIX 1 Transcription of Interview Jakob Lyngso Andersen, 2013, FLSmidth Human Resource Group Manager Interview on Employee Satisfaction, Interviewed by Noreen S. Orcine (Personal), Valby, 14th March â€Å"We have of what we call a pretty engaged work force. Loyal and committed, and that’s what counts. I don’t necessarily need a satisfied work force, because satisfied work force is you know, is just sitting and waiting around or they’ll be gone. They need complaints. Here I want something or somebody