Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Business communications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Business communications - Essay Example The balance of trade becomes affected in such cases, thereby adversely affected the economy as whole. The Canadian dollar is positively correlated to the strength of the world commodity prices. This situation will boost imports as most traders will find it highly profitable to export to Canada at a comparatively lower exchange rate compared to the U.S. dollar. However, the exports will be affected negatively since it will be comparatively expensive to export Canadian products compared to the U.S. products. In conclusion, the fact that the recent report on the Purchasing Power Parity estimates a bundle of goods that cost a consumer $1 CAD in Canada would cost in the range of 80-85 US cents in the United States is a strong indication that some economic improvement should be done. As the Canadian dollar trends along these ranges, the Canadian consumers are, and will be paying a significant value on their goods compared to their counterparts in the United

Sunday, October 27, 2019

The personality disorders | Analysis

The personality disorders | Analysis Personality or personality traits are the basis of what makes a person who they are. When expressed in a healthy way that is beneficial to a person, they are described as an enduring pattern of our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. They are how we think, feel, make decisions, and take actions (Barker, 1995). They are determined both by a persons genetic makeup and environmental factors and are a determining factor as to how a person lives their life. When a personality trait becomes rigid and dysfunctional, where it significantly hinders healthy thoughts and activities and harms the person who has them, this may be the basis for a personality disorder. According to the DSM-IV a personality disorder must show a lasting pattern of behavior and inner experience that markedly deviates from norms of the persons culture (James Morrison, 2006). This could include personality patterns that are normal in some people, but are exaggerated or accentuated in those with a personality disorder. In order for a person to be diagnosed with a personality disorder, the symptoms must show a lifelong pattern of manifestation. This means that the disorder is typically identified in late adolescence or early adulthood and persists throughout a lifespan. Another requirement for the diagnosis of personality disorders is that the negative behavior patterns must have a pervasive effect on all areas of a persons life; this includes employment, intimate relationships, social functioning, and family. The behavior must routinely causes problems or dysfunction, and cannot be attributed to any other sort of mental or physical illness (James Morrison, 2006). An indi vidual with a personality disorder will show maladjustment in all aspects of their life and the disorder will be reflected in the ingrained, rigid, and dysfunctional patterns that they present throughout their lifetime. According to Frances, personality disorders usually produce ego-syntonic behavior, or consistent with the ego integrity of the individual, and, therefore, are usually considered appropriate by the individual. This may cause the negative behavioral patterns to be inflexible and tough to change. (Frances, 1999) The treatment of personality disorders is usually difficult and often has limited results. In the DSM-IV there are three groups or clusters that each of the 10 personality disorders fall into. People with cluster A disorders are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior, abnormal cognitions or ideas, strange speech or actions, and difficulty relating to others (Frances, 1999). People diagnosed with personality disorders are more frequently diagnosed with an Axis I disorders as well (James Morrison, 2006). Frequent co-morbid diagnosis for cluster A personality disorders are: agoraphobia, major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse (Frances, 1999). Type A disorders include paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders. Paranoid personality disorder, the first of the cluster A disorders, is characterized by extreme or unnecessary paranoia, suspiciousness, and a general mistrust of organizations, groups, and others, is found in 0.5%-2.5% of the population, as a whole and occurs more commonly in males (Frances, 1999). A person with paranoid personality disorder often thinks, without reason or cause, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them, which inhibits them from developing close relationships. According to Dobbert, The delusional belief that others are disloyal and untrustworthy precludes their ability to confide in others. The afflicted person believes that the information that they provide in confidence will be later utilized to bring them harm (Dobbert, 2007). People with paranoid personality disorder also tend to hold grudges and become angry for seemingly benign perceptions of insults or injuries. These grudges can be long lasting and based out of perceived threats or insults. Even if the intention to harm or defame the person is not present, due to the constant expectation that others are trying to hurt them, an individual with a paranoid personality disorder creates a threat and will then hold malice toward another person for an exaggerated amount of time. This malice will evoke anger and hostility that will eventually lead to the alienation and isolation (Dobbert, 2007). The second of the cluster A disorders is the schizoid personality disorder, it is characterized by a general detachment from social settings, a restricted or muted range of emotions, and need for solidarity. It is found in 3% of the general population and affects women more commonly then men (Frances, 1999). A person with schizoid personality disorder neither desires nor enjoys close or intimate relationships. According to Dobbert, Persons afflicted with schizoid personality disorder find no interest in initiating, developing, and maintaining close relationships. It is not uncommon for these persons to lack the interest or desire to be considered a part of their biological family (Dobbert, 2007). These people do not find inclusion in groups or social settings particularly interesting or desirable and work to avoid such settings. A person with schizoid personality disorder is described as appearing introverted, but not shy, and seems to prefer their own company instead of seeking relationships with others. This often leads the person showing little if any interest in sexual or intimate experiences, preferring acts of self-gratification and sexual fantasy over personal contact. (Dobbert, 2007) Due to the indifference of intimate relationships, the person with schizoid personality disorder develops limited interest in activities they enjoy and does not seek to share these activities with others. They would prefer to focus their attention on a few activities and interests of a solitary nature and to obsess about those interests with little regard to the perceptions of others. They also seem to be unaffected by the acceptance, praise, or criticism of others involving their actions and isolation. It becomes obvious to those around them that a person with schizoid personality disorder does not care what others perceptions are and they often seem cold, detached, and unemotional, presenting a bland or blank expression to the world (Dobbert, 2007). The final disorder in cluster A is the schizotypal personality disorder which is a condition characterized by distorted thoughts, behaviors, and functioning. Magical thinking, relationship difficulties, severe anxiety, and poor social skills are also common. (James Morrison, 2006) This disorder affects 3% of the general population and is diagnosed slightly more in females then males. (Frances, 1999) People with schizotypal personality disorder perceive things in an odd or unusual way. Their interpretation often differs from that of others and is specific to themselves (meaning nobody else shares similar perceptions and thoughts), but is not based out of delusional thought or differing cultural norms. Many of these people believe that that they have extrasensory or magical powers and attribute their odd perceptions to this ability (Dobbert, 2007). The belief in clairvoyance, mind control, the sixth sense and other forms of magical thinking often lead others to view these people as odd which strains social and work relationships. To compound this, many people with schizotypal personality disorder have a reduced ability to understand other peoples actions and respond to them inappropriate and in a socially unacceptable manner. Having few successful experiences with others often leads to social anxiety, suspiciousness, and paranoid ideation. Dobbert states rather than examining ones self to determine the source of others avoidance, people with schizotypal personality disorder believe that the others are conspiring against them. Due to the inability of self-introspections, the afflicted person withdraws deeper and further isolates themselves, leading the person to further fall into their delusional thinking (Dobbert, 2007). People with cluster B disorders are characterized by dramatic, unpredictable, and destructive behaviors as well as difficulty with impulsiveness, the violation of social norms, and being self-abusive and hostile to others. It is common for these disorders to share co-morbidity with eating disorders, social phobias, somatization disorder, pathological gambling, substance abuse, and post traumatic stress disorder (Frances, 1999). Included in cluster B are antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders. According to the DSM-V, the first of the cluster B disorders is the antisocial personality disorder, which is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violations of, the rights of others (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by failure to conform to social norms, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggression, irresponsibility, and lack of remorse. It affects 3% of men and 1% of women, and is distributed evenly throughout all races (Frances, 1999). People with antisocial personality disorder act against social norms and show little respect for lawful behaviors. They are often arrested or commit acts that could lead to confrontations with law enforcement. According to Dobbert, people with this disorder dont just violate social normsbut, perform behaviors that are significant violations of the criminal code (Dobbert, 2007). This indicates that people with antisocial personality disorder are capable of committing the most heinous of crimes including rape, armed robbery, and murder. This diagnosis had been applied to many of the documented serial killers such as Ted Bundy, Jeffery Dahmer, and John Wayne Gacy. (Dobbert, 2007) The level of deceptiveness that is involved in antisocial personality disorder has been directly linked to the intelligence of the individual. While all people diagnosed with this disorder pathologically lie, as intelligence increases the use of aliases and conning operations also shows an increase. Deception contributes to the notable involvement with law enforcement and is often utilized in criminal acts (Dobbert, 2007). As displayed by criminal and deceptive acts, a lack of impulse control is noted for those diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. This impulsivity often leads to the disregard for personal safety and the safety of others. In the ever increasing need for heightened stimulation, those with antisocial personality disorder do whatever gives them the feeling of power over others (Dobbert, 2007), this may include hurtful, violent, and aggressive acts done with little regard for other peoples feelings or of the consequences of their actions. The second disorder in cluster B, borderline personality disorder, is stated by the American Psychiatric Association as pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects and marked impulsivity (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by identity disturbances, self-damaging behavior, feelings of emptiness, anger regulation problems, and stress related paranoid ideation or dissociative symptoms. Affecting more females than males at a rate of 3-1, it is found in 2% of the general population (Frances, 1999). Dysfunctional relationships are the key area that defines borderline personality disorder. Dobbert states that persons afflicted with borderline personality disorder are obsessed with the potential for rejection and abandonment. Their perception of the environment and persons response to them influences their feeling of self-worth and image (Dobbert, 2007). They often misconceive common circumstances and situations as rejection. This then manifests itself in anger, resentment, and feelings of abandonment. In order to tailor themselves to a relationship, the person with borderline personality disorder will illustrate a sudden change in self expression and perception. These changes may include sudden changes in the style of clothing, attitude, and social preferences of the individual and may also encompass hobbies, interests, and activities. If an individual is rejected by the object of that relationship, they will change themselves again to distance themselves from their past relationship and attract a new one (Dobbert, 2007). In order to manipulate others and stage off real or perceived abandonment, a person with borderline personality disorder will threaten or attempt suicidal behavior, and self-mutilation. Threatening self-injury or suicide allows the individual to control the other person in the relationship and allows them to postpone the abandonment that they so fear. While attempts are made on the part of a person with this disorder, many of them are half-hearted and not meant to be successful; they are simply utilized as a device evoke a desired reaction from another person. Histrionic personality disorder is the third of the cluster B disorders, and is described as pervasive and excessive emotionality and attention-seeking behavior (James Morrison, 2006). It is characterized by sexual promiscuity, rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotion, self-dramatization, and suggestibility. It is found in 2-3% of the population and is diagnosed more often in women (Frances, 1999). Typically, people with histrionic personality disorder exhibit a compulsatory need to be the center of attention. When they find themselves being ignored or not admired they feel anxiety and identify confusion. These people are very socially motivated and expect to be noticed and envied by others. In order to gain attention many people with histrionic personality disorder focus intensely on appearance or act overdramatically in hopes of creating a scene to gain attention. Seductiveness and overtly sexual and provocative behavior is another way for people with histrionic personality disorder to gain attention. Flirtatious and intimate behavior is often used, even in inappropriate settings such as work, to gain attention. A conflict surrounding this inappropriate behavior, instead of inhibiting the behavior, only works to reinforce it as the center of attention again shifts to the disordered person. Narcissistic personality disorder, the final disorder of the cluster B sub-type is characterized by exaggeration of achievements, preoccupation with success and power, excessive need for admiration, a sense of entitlement, exploitation, envy, and arrogance (Frances, 1999). The DSM-V states that narcissistic personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, with a need for admiration, and a marked lack of empathy (James Morrison, 2006). Of the general population less than 1% of the population suffers from narcissistic personality disorder and it is diagnosed 3-1 in males over females and is commonly classed the male ego disorder (Frances, 1999). Those who suffer from this disorder are prone to overinflating or creating achievements in order to brag about or prove their superiority to others. They often daydream about unlimited success and about the admiration that it will bring from others. They may also suffer from delusions that allow them to believe that they are entitled to act in any way they want, despite the effect it has on others. Because they view themselves as superior, the narcissist does not feel that they should be concerned themselves with the feelings of others. They will often defame and exploit others for their own self promotion. This marked lack of empathy is a dominate feature of narcissistic personality disorder and is brought about as a defense mechanism to protect their grandiose ideals about themselves. Cluster C disorders, including avoidant, dependant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders are characterized by fearful and anxious behaviors, as well as avoidance of social situations and feelings of loss of control (Frances, 1999). Typical Axis I co-morbid diagnosis are: social phobias, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder, myocardial infraction, and obsessive compulsive disorder. Treatment- (Dingfelder, 2004) Individuals at this end of the continuum commit rape, murder, and genocide. Will a person afflicted with antisocial personality disorder start at the lease serious end of the continuum and move to the far extreme? Recovery Conclusion Works Cited Barker, R. L. (1995). The Social Work Dictionary. In R. L. Barker, The Social Work Dictionary (p. 104). New York, New York: NASW Press. This source is reviewed and published by the NASW press, a division of the National Association of Social Workers, which is a leading scholarly press in social science research field. The information used gives a broad and comprehensive definition of the role that a personality plays in the life of an individual. This definition of personality and personality traits was chosen because due to its association with social work and because of its encompassing definition. This definition is used as a contrast point for the explanation of personality disorders. Dingfelder, S. (2004). Treatment for the Untreatable. Monitor on Psychology , Vol 35, No. 3, p. 46-48. This article, found in a peer reviewed scholarly journal, discusses the effectiveness of treatment for personality disorders. It states that many practitioners have had difficulty in treating personality disorders, which continue to present a pervasive and persistent pattern of dysfunction despite many treatment methods. It also discusses some effective treatment options and the hope for recovery from personality disorders. Frances, A. M. (1999). Your Mental Health: A Laymans Guide to the Psychiatrists Bible . In A. M. Frances, Your Mental Health: A Laymans Guide to the Psychiatrists Bible . New York: Scribner. Written by one of the authors of the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, this book provides general information about diagnosis of personality disorders and other mental health problems. It gives more detailed information on the cluster groupings (A, B, and C) for personality disorders than the DSM-IV Made Easy, as sited below. It also gives descriptive character traits that are associated with each of the personality disorders and discusses Axis I co-morbid diagnosis that are often found with personality disorders. James Morrison, M. (2006). The DSM-IV Made Easy. In M. James Morriosn, The DSM-IV Made Easy (pp. 461-495). New York: Guildford Publications, Inc. This book, containing information released in the DSM-IV, released by the American Psychological Association, is a stripped down, simplified version of the original DSM_IV. It provided detailed information on each personality disorder as well as diagnostic criteria for personality disorders. It also provides classification information and Axis diagnosis. The information in the source is considered to be extremely accurate and is therefore used to give a thorough and comprehensive information in relation to each personality disorder. Mayo Clinic. (2010, April 6). Personality Disorders. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from This source, written by the psychological staff at the Mayo Clinic, is retrievable online. The Mayo Clinic, an internationally renowned medical practice and research group, has given a general overview of personality disorders and discussed some treatment options that are available for the disorders. The information for treatment is not found in the above references, and the idea of using psychotherapy and medication to treat personality disorders is discussed. Women Discrimination In Business: Walmarts Case Women Discrimination In Business: Walmarts Case Ethics has consistently been a part of our society. It has continuously played a crucial role whether in the professional world or in our normal daily lives. According to the well known sociologist Raymond Baumhart, ethics consists of the guidelines based on the basis of what is right and wrong and people are expected to follow the right path. A few examples such as honesty, trust and equality fall under ethical behavior and it is required in order for all of us to have a peaceful environment. (Baumhart, 1987) Importance of ethics in the business world Ethics is equally essential in the business world because it highlights the responsibilities, the principles and the standards that business people along with its organization should follow permanently. Any business organization that lacks or ignores the ethical principles is expected to fail and may harm the companys image in several ways. For example unethical behavior such as employees coming to work late frequently will reduce the productivity level for the company and this may also intervene with their profit which for many firms is the sole purpose. It is the top management levels duty to ensure that all the current working employees in their company are aware of the ethical guidelines regarding acceptable behavior in order to prevent acts such cheating at work, socializing at some networking site rather than giving priority to your work, discriminating against an employee etc. Ethics is also considered one of the corporate social responsibilities along with economic, legal and philanthropic and they should be considered majorly important. It should be dealt with seriousness because it covers human resource issues which refer to discrimination at workplace and it is extremely vital for the managers at top level to not differentiate between their employees based on how they appear or any other reason for that matter. Fairness is another part where the managers have to make sure that they are treating their employees with equality without any biased decisions taking place. Besides these reasons there are many more which just proves the point that ethics is really important for management to succeed in achieving their goals. Women Discrimination Gender Discrimination Discrimination in todays world can be defined as the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favour of or against, a person or a thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit. (, 2010). Discriminatory behaviours are of many different kinds but they mainly entail some form of exclusion or rejection. One form of discrimination that has been seen from generations till today is gender discrimination where either of the sex is considered weaker than the other. Women Discrimination in society In most societies and developed countries like the U.S. girls are usually given the freedom and encouraged to create their own lifestyle, since childhood. They are made to believe in themselves and that they can be as successful as boys in every work of life. However, the case is not the same for girls from other societies which are mostly from developing countries. They are brought up to believe the opposite where they are constantly reminded of the things they are not allowed to do. In most of the developing countries sons are regarded as insurance and hence their birth is celebrated with great joy. Whereas, when a girl is born she is considered as another expense and liability for the family. Since childhood, they are trained to do household activities and stay indoors, isolating them from the rest of the world. In some parts of India, a tradition prevails to greet the family of newborn girl by saying The servant of your household has been born. Women from such societies face issu es like emotional and physical abuse, inferiority, having their families and society limit their opportunities and restricting them from living life up to their full potential. Discrimination against women is a very demoralizing reality that still exists resulting in millions of individual tragedies. Studies show that a countrys attitude towards women is directly proportional to its social and economic progress i.e. if one part of the country gets affected then the result of the affect is suffered by the whole country as well. Sadly, women fall weak and are not able to defend themselves in situations where they are being discriminated. For example many women have to face problems like dowry, negligence, infanticide and sex-selective abortion, physical abuse and labour and sex trafficking (Mullins, 2010). Gender lines are drawn early in womens life and they face exclusions from childhood and continue facing it through out their adulthood as well. This perspective of women and false belief that women do not belong in the high corporate world has risen as a result of women discrimination. There has, over time been a stereotype thinking that women are only suitable for restricted professions like teaching or best suited to be housewives. Studies show that during elementary school teachers give more attention and importance to boys in Maths and Science while girls are paid attention by teachers in subjects like Language and Art. This is because Maths and Science subjects are more academically challenging and to be taken in the field of medicine, engineering and architecture which are considered to be male professions. Studies also show that girls in middle and high school are discouraged to participate in extracurricular activities like sports or join debate clubs. Instead, they are encou raged to participate in after school volunteer work, social programs and more inert activities. Also, when making career choices, girls are pestered by parents into pursuing clichà ©d female-oriented professions like teaching, nursing, care giving, retail and office administration. Studies carried by the Department of Labour 2007 statistics show that more women are starting businesses than men, more women are in the employees than men, and the majority of degree-holders are now women and yet they are only still dominating fields and industries that are considered suitable for female (Wolfe, 2009) Women discrimination is not always seen in developing countries alone but can also be noticed in developed countries. For example, one of the largest sex discrimination case seen in the history on the U.S. is the law suit filed against Wal-Mart. This suit was filed in the year 2001 by six female employees and by April 2010 it was reported to include more than a million females costing the retailer billions in damages. The women who filed the case claimed that they faced systematic discrimination at work. The Wal-Mart industry It is an American retailing industry founded by Sam Walton in1962 when he launched its first branch in Arkansas. His main strategy which found him early success in his life was to keep prices relatively low which lead him to earn a ranking as the richest man during the 1980s. According to the Forbes magazine, it became the worlds largest corporation by revenue. Walmarts women discrimination case Wal-Mart is being criticized for paying its female employees less than its male employees and also provide smaller salary raises to women and fewer promotions. It was reported that women at Wal-Mart were being steered away from management positions into lower-level jobs without much possible chances of progress like cashier jobs. Moreover, a woman who came looking for a job opportunity as a manager was reported to be told that she was not qualified for the management position as she was not able to stack 50 pound bags of dog food. It was also reported by The New York Times that around 33% of the women at Wal-Mart are companys managers whereas the rest 65% consist of women working as hourly employees. Wal-Mart was account to be biased towards males (Goudreau, 2010). Wal-Mart has around 700,000 working women that form its back bone and make it one of the largest private sector employers of women in the U.S. However, these employees face discrimination at work on advancement opportunities, job assignments and receive unequal pay. This discrimination towards women has been seen in all levels of the company i.e. from hourly working employees to senior management. Women earn 40cents less than what they should be earning equal to the other hourly male employees even though they have longer seniority and higher merit ratings than their male co-workers. A woman manager earns around $5,000 per year less compared to a male manager who earns $23,175 per year. Women executives also do not find themselves safe from discrimination at Wal-Mart. Women face systematic denial of advancement as men dominate the management ranks. They are stuck in the low paying jobs consisting of 92% cashiers and 76% sales associate. Wal-Marts competitors in the past have had more women managers than men compared to Wal-Mart. (UFCW, 2010). Walmarts case from Kants perspective Wal-Marts case casts light upon the ethical considerations of women discrimination in the work environment. Whether it is illegal is still under trial, however, it is clearly an ethical issue. Businesses often face such ethical issues which occur due to many reasons even if they are unintentional. The market fluctuations, competition and profit-making orientation lead business owners and managers into behaving unethically without conspicuous intentions. The issue of women discrimination can be analysed and evaluated using ethical theory. Ethical theory is generally based upon moral philosophy and may be classified on many different dimensions, however, there are several basic types of moral philosophy which are used in business ethics, such as egoism, utilitarianism, deontology, rights and relativism (Bartlett, 2003: 224). Egoism and Utilitarianism are examples of consequentialist philosophies whereas, deontological approaches such as that of Immanuel Kant are an example of non-consequentialist philosophies. Kants theories are often associated with the duties, moral rights and respect of an individual. His theories say that each person has both the right to expect to be treated according to universal moral laws and the corresponding duty to behave according to that law (Bartlett, 2003: 224). Kants theory proposes a categorical imperative which is the particular moral law according to which people should act. It states that one should act as if the maxim of thy action were to become by thy will a universal law of nature (Kant, cited in Bartlett, 2003: 224). This means that an action can be set as a categorical imperative making it a universal law and applying it to the maximum population to see what the result of that action would be if it became common behavior of the world. The morality of an action can be judged by applying the deontological approach which considers the rights, duties, truth and respect of an individual according to universal moral principles. It focuses on doing the right thing. Sex discrimination or discrimination of women in particular can be evaluated using Kants theory. Applying the theory, the categorical imperative or the universal rule can be set as It is okay to discriminate women in business practices. If this rule is applied universally, the effect of this action on the society or the whole world would be highly negative. Firstly, men would continue to view women as the weaker sex due to which they will not give them opportunities to work at all. If women dont work they will have low motivation and high emotional stress which can affect their family lives. If all families became unhappy and stressed the whole society will be affected and may not prosper. Secondly, the household incomes would decrease drastically as women will not be able to support their husbands. Furthermore, if women will have no career opportunities, they will stop their education and the literacy rate would go down. Labour supply in the market would decrease which would lead to a surplus in labour demand thus, creating a need for high wages and salaries which can become a major issue with employers. The overall employment rate would also decrease; affecting the world economy. The result of discriminating women and discouraging their participation in work practices universally can cause serious harm to the society and the whole world overall. It questions womens rights and respect along with mans duty towards equality and fairness in the world. Thus, the universal rule will be contradicted and negated leading to the conclusion that, as analyzed through this theory and the deontological approach, sex discrimination is unethical. Walmarts perspective On the contrary, when considering the case from Walmarts perspective, it is important to understand that it is the senior managements duty and responsibility to take every measure to ensure they assign jobs to employees who are most suited to do them and hold the capabilities required to accomplish the job. For example, Walmart has been criticised for refusing one woman a management position because she was unable to stack 50-pound bags of dog food hence, unqualified for the job. While many have protested against this act, it must be highlighted that there has been always a stereotype image of women as being the weaker sex and this incident helps illustrate that. Walmart managers understand that the business involves tasks that cannot be easily accomplished by women as compared to men. Also, giving women tedious jobs might be considered unethical by some customers and this could affect Walmarts reputation as being harsh towards women and making them do jobs they are not fit for. More over, Walmart may have been scandalised by its competitors who are looking for ways to show the company in a negative light as it is successful and poses serious threat to smaller businesses who are unable to compete on the basis of price due to the exceptional low prices Walmart provides hence, looking for other methods of causing damage to their competitor. Target Corporation and its ethical practices One of the greatest competitions faced by Walmart is from Target Corporation; after Walmart, Target is the second largest discount retailer in the United States. Walmart and Target do business in quiet similar manner and have both very wide-ranging ethical and environmental policies in place. However in terms of practices, Walmart has solicited much more criticism than Target for breaching its ethical policies, the company has poor employment benefits, exerts pressure on suppliers, eliminates waste into the environment and as discussed earlier, practices gender discrimination to great extent. However, Target refuses to tolerate workplace discrimination and tries to create an environment in which everyone recognizes the value of diversity. According to national statistics the average company across the United States employs a staff that consists of forty-eight percent women; fifty-nine percent of Targets workforce is women. In part with this statistic and the treatment of their female employees, Target has been honored as an organization with multiple national awards recognizing their commitment to gender diversity. In 2005, Target was named one of the Top 30 Companies for Executive Women, by the National Association for Female Executives. As well as in 2004, they were named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers, by the magazine, Working Mother. Therefore similar to Target, Walmart should also adopt policies against gender discrimination to avoid lawsuits which spoils the image of the company.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Physical Development of Children in Middle Childhood Essays -- Child D

This topic considers what the physical development of children in ‘middle childhood (6-10)’ is, and how their physical needs in the learning environment can be accommodated. The key elements taken into consideration would be the development of motor skills for the selected age group and the influences of the specified group. The benefits of physical activity and the consequences of prolonged inactivity, how a student’s development can be facilitated or restricted through development in other areas with the use of physical activity and issues of health and well being in the learning environment to accommodate or support the physical needs and development of the students in the specified age group. Accounts and ideas by specialists in the field of physical development and the specified group have been documented to show how these factors can work together. These elements are necessary to understand how a child’s environment and developmental levels enable them to learn effectively The fine motor skills development in students’ within the middle childhood age range gradually improves throughout their learning period. Throughout their ‘middle childhood’ students’ writing becomes smaller, neater and more consistent with fewer spelling and grammatical errors and drawings contain more detail and are â€Å"supported by physiological maturation and cognitive advances† (McDevitt & Ormond, 2010, Pg 161). Their ability to try and succeed at fine motor skills such; arts and crafts, knitting and beading projects increase. It is imperative to increase children’s writing tasks from shapes, letters and numbers to words, sentences and sums to improve both fine motor skills and cognitive abilities. Physical development can affect other area... ...reat Britain: Oneworld Publicatons Lucas, R.W. (2005). People Strategies for Trainers. 176 Tips and Techniques for dealing with DIFFICULT Classroom Situations. USA: AMACOM American Management Association McDevitt, T.M & Ormrod, J.E. (2010). Child Development and Education. USA: S4 Carlisle Publishing Services McInerney, D.M. & McInerney, V. (2002). Educational Psychology Constructing Learning. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Catherine Godfrey Shilton, T. & Naughton, G. National Physical Activity Program Committee, National Heart Foundation of Australia. Physical activity and children A Statement of Importance and Call to Action from the Heart Foundation. (2001). Retrieved from Early Childhood Education (2012). Retrieved from Physical Development of Children in Middle Childhood Essays -- Child D This topic considers what the physical development of children in ‘middle childhood (6-10)’ is, and how their physical needs in the learning environment can be accommodated. The key elements taken into consideration would be the development of motor skills for the selected age group and the influences of the specified group. The benefits of physical activity and the consequences of prolonged inactivity, how a student’s development can be facilitated or restricted through development in other areas with the use of physical activity and issues of health and well being in the learning environment to accommodate or support the physical needs and development of the students in the specified age group. Accounts and ideas by specialists in the field of physical development and the specified group have been documented to show how these factors can work together. These elements are necessary to understand how a child’s environment and developmental levels enable them to learn effectively The fine motor skills development in students’ within the middle childhood age range gradually improves throughout their learning period. Throughout their ‘middle childhood’ students’ writing becomes smaller, neater and more consistent with fewer spelling and grammatical errors and drawings contain more detail and are â€Å"supported by physiological maturation and cognitive advances† (McDevitt & Ormond, 2010, Pg 161). Their ability to try and succeed at fine motor skills such; arts and crafts, knitting and beading projects increase. It is imperative to increase children’s writing tasks from shapes, letters and numbers to words, sentences and sums to improve both fine motor skills and cognitive abilities. Physical development can affect other area... ...reat Britain: Oneworld Publicatons Lucas, R.W. (2005). People Strategies for Trainers. 176 Tips and Techniques for dealing with DIFFICULT Classroom Situations. USA: AMACOM American Management Association McDevitt, T.M & Ormrod, J.E. (2010). Child Development and Education. USA: S4 Carlisle Publishing Services McInerney, D.M. & McInerney, V. (2002). Educational Psychology Constructing Learning. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Catherine Godfrey Shilton, T. & Naughton, G. National Physical Activity Program Committee, National Heart Foundation of Australia. Physical activity and children A Statement of Importance and Call to Action from the Heart Foundation. (2001). Retrieved from Early Childhood Education (2012). Retrieved from

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Chicken Run Camera Angles

Run has many uses of camera angles. Camera angles can be used in many different ways, (low, high or mid angles), especially in Chicken Run. In Chicken Run camera angles are used to give the viewer a sense of what is going on and influence the viewer on how a character is regarded e. g. if the camera angle is gazing directly upwards towards a character this would usually indicate that the character in question has a lot of power or they are in charge.Camera angles can be used to show effects such as panic and calm on characters epending on what is taking place around them. A great example of this effect takes place as Ginger and the other chickens are being chased through the chicken yard by guard dogs. The camera angle in this scene flickers backwards and forwards constantly, keeping in tempo with what is taking place at present throughout the chase. As the chase comes to a climax Mrs Tweedy appears in front of Ginger and the camera angle changes to a low angled shot and stays fixed, this proves that all is calm again and The very first shot is of the moon.This instantly implies the genre and sets the tone f the film: the shot is very typical of the horror movie genre of films from the 20th century (which is also when the film is set). 3. The first shot pans down across to where Mr Tweedy and his two dogs are walking. The view of the fence surrounding the farm closely resembles the prisoner-of-war films which inspired the film itself. There is almost no sound and the music is quiet and mysterious to effect. He has dogs with him, most likely for protection, with fierce expressions, showing the mood of the scene. 4. Match-on-action shot of Mr Tweedys hand checking the lock on the gate.This suggests that he does not want anything or anyone getting in or out, and that he may be hiding something. Cut to an extreme low-angle close-up of his feet walking away. We never see his face in the first part of this sequence. This creates a sense of mystery as to who he is. It could mean that he is the main antagonist of the film because of this. 5. A fgure emerges and tries not to be noticed. This further suggests the first character we see (Mr Tweedy) is the antagonist since a character wants to hide from him, but we still don't fully understand why the fgure is hiding rom him.There is mystery surrounding the fgure as well as we cannot see (yet) who it is. Foot emerges before the rest of the body, suggests the figure is nervous of showing him/herself. 6. The water tower in the background connotes a guard tower in a typical prisoner-of-war film, so again there is reference to films such as ‘The Great Escape' which the film closely parodies, and also that there is a greater force on Mr Tweedys side. 7. The shadow (Ginger) makes a run for it, again trying not to be caught. The way the dog hears Ginger first suggests the danger is nearer; she is about o be caught. . Ginger is nearly caught; an example of a false alarm' where we believe the character has been caught but hasn't. 9. Match-on-action shot shows her frustration as she digs. Shot of the spoon being thrown back onto the floor; she is forced to leave everything but herself behind. 10. We are misled to believe she is sately across and all the danger is over, but in the next snot more chickens arrive. These two shots echo the previous shots of Ginger running across, so the risk of danger is repeated. 12.Cutting between the two actions of the chickens trying to scape and the dogs running towards them; again this shows frustrationand pressure for the chickens and a sense of danger. The sound and music both add to this effect by suddenly increasing dramatically, rising as the dogs near. 13. The sound and music have now increased to their full volume as Ginger turns to run. We finally see the face of the character we saw at the beginning, albeit for two brief seconds. The camera zooms in sharply on his triumphant expression. 14.Short, sharp cuts between shots, as well as the camera following the dogs, creates a feel of speed and shows the impact of the chase. Ginger stops and turns back in this shot; she has nowhere to turn. 15. Shot-reverse-shot between Ginger and the dogs is used to show she is trapped. The camera also backs away with Ginger; there is a slow zoom out on this shot of the dogs closing in. 16. The dog eating the gnome head (that Ginger tries to force them away with) shows her helplessness and what is destined for her. We don't see the impact of the head being eaten, implying violence. 17. Close-up shot of her head, slowly panning in.The attention is on her terrified expression, as the camera zooming in slowly shows how her ‘doom' is coming nearer nd nearer. 18. Both Ginger and the dogs turn at the light from behind her. The lighting has changed and is like a light from heaven' as if Ginger is being called or summoned, as if everything has already happened. The music has also stopped suddenly. 19. Cutting back to the curious faces o f the chickens. There is no music and very quiet sound; everyone has stopped to look, creating suspense of what they are looking at. 20. The camera pans up revealing the true main antagonist, with a short piece of dramatic music for this shot.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Working Poor in America

Working to be Poor in America A single mother of three works two jobs at minimum wage can survive only if she takes advantage of food stamps and lives with a roommate to help pays the bills. This is the case with most of the â€Å"working poor† in America. In 2006, a family of four with one minimum-wage earner had a total income (including food stamps and the Earned Income Tax Credit) of $18,950, some $1,550 below the poverty line. America is one of the richest countries in the world and yet according to the US Census Bureau, in 2010 21 million of its population lived in working-poor families.This translates into nearly 9. 6 percent of all American families living below 100 percent of poverty have at least one family member working. How can this be? Some people believe that the workers are to blame; they believe that it is the workers’ lack of ambition and drive to better themselves that causes them to be in such dire conditions. While this might be true in very few cas es, I don’t believe that it paints the entire picture as to why there could be a â€Å"working poor† class in America.Despite what society may think, the â€Å"working poor† exists because they are subjected to minimum wage, insufficient hours, layoffs, lack of skills, expensive health care and childcare, and inadequate housing. Society throws so many curve balls at low-wage workers that it has become very nearly impossible for them to transcend their situations. One common misconception is that the answer to poverty is to get a job. We assume that if someone is hungry, it is because they are unemployed and are living on the streets. The reality is that over 49 million Americans are affected by hunger.Does this mean that they all are jobless and homeless? As the article â€Å"25 million depend on emergency food assistance† reports, about one-third of the adults between the ages of 18 and 65 needing emergency food-aid are employed. Thirty-six percent of al l families seeking assistance reported that at least one family member was working. As Michelle Conlin and Aaron Bernstein explain, today more than 28 million people, about a quarter of the workforce between the ages of 18 and 64, earn less than $9. 04 an hour, which translates into a full-time salary of $18,800 a year—the income that marks the federal poverty line for a family of four. â€Å"The Working Poor Are Not Getting By in America†) The Census Bureau lists that overall 63% of U. S. families below the federal poverty line have one or more workers. How is it that such a large percentage of the U. S. population can be considered as poor or hungry? Is it that all these people lack ambition or is it society that places the burden of poverty on these workers? The primary and main reason for the rut the â€Å"working poor† find themselves in is the minimum wage. While profits and productivity soar in today’s economy, the minimum wage hasn’t kept p ace with inflation.Opponents of a raise in the minimum wage often make dire predictions about supposed adverse impacts on employment rates and the economy. But study after study shows that there is simply  no  evidence that raising the minimum wage has led to higher unemployment, and there is substantial evidence that a responsible minimum wage increase does not affect employment rates at all. According to the New York Times editorial Board, if the minimum wage had kept pace with the rise in executive salaries since 1990, America’s poorest paid workers would be making more than $23 an hour.In 1956, the federal minimum wage was a dollar an hour; that same dollar when adjusted for inflation would be $10. 55 an hour in today's dollars, instead today the actual federal wage is $7. 25 and for tipped workers a dismal $2. 13. This amounts to about $1. 50 an hour less, in today’s money, than it did in 1968. In â€Å"Raising the minimum wage will reduce poverty† it s tates that even with a $7. 25-an-hour minimum wage, a family of five with a full-time, minimum-wage earner that receives food stamps and the refundable tax credits would fall $1,139 below the poverty line in 2009.In the past 30 years, Congress has passed legislation to increase the minimum wage exactly 3 times. With politicians and employers fighting furiously to keep this minimum wage down, low-wage workers are forced to work two, sometimes even three jobs in addition to depending on government handouts in order to barely get by. While their income is kept at a minimum, their expenses continue to soar: health care, child care, gas prices, housing, the list goes on. The cost of living has been constantly rising for years while the minimum wage lags behind. The number of people who lack health insurance is about 49. million. In 2010, the percentage of people who had health insurance through their employers fell to 55. 3% while 31% of Americans relied on the government for health insu rance. (Les Christie) However, while most children in families with a full-time minimum-wage worker are eligible for free or low-cost health insurance through Medicaid or the State Children’s Health Insurance Program, their parents are not. In fact, according to the Census data, in 25 states a parent in a three-person family with a full-time, minimum-wage job earns too much to qualify for Medicaid.As a result, about 41 percent of all parents with incomes below the poverty line were uninsured in 2005. In addition to this, many working poor families face significant childcare costs. According to the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies, in the median state in the 2004-2005 academic year, full-time infant care in a licensed child care center cost an average of $7,100 per year, while full-time care for preschoolers in a licensed child care center cost an average of $5,800.Without a child care subsidy, a family earning at or near the minimum wage is un likely to be able to afford such a tuition bill for one child, let alone two or more children. Housing cost burdens for poor families are often severe. Expenditures on public housing have fallen since the 1980s, and expansion of public rental subsidies came to a halt in the mid-1990s. Actual rents have to be less than 30% of one’s income to be considered ‘affordable’. Ehrenreich 201) Housing analyst Peter Dreier reports that 59% of poor renters, amounting to a total of 4. 4 million households, spend more than 50% of their income on shelter. (38) Nationwide, the average cost of a modest two-bedroom apartment in 2006 was $821 per month, or $9,852 per year, according to the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). At this cost, rent and utilities consume nearly half (48 percent) of the income of a family of four at the poverty line. This calculation assumes that the family receives food stamps, the EITC and child tax credit. ) Rising rents are forcin g the low-wage workers into motels with fluctuating prices for the winter season and tourist seasons. By relying on the minimum wage, basic necessities such as health care and home-ownership have now become a luxury to the â€Å"working poor† – a distant dream that can never be realized. We would assume that there is adequate support for the â€Å"working poor† through government handouts, but even this system is flawed.Throughout the nation soup kitchens and food pantries are stretched beyond capacity, struggling and failing to meet new need, much of it from working people whose wages simply haven't kept up. Barbara Ehrenreich in her book Nickled and Dimed reveals through her own experience as a low-wage employee just how difficult it is to receive help from the government and charity organizations and how limited these options are. You would need to dedicate a significant amount of your time and energy to locate these options and even when you do manage to get in touch with the â€Å"right person† the help received can be useless.As a low-wage worker, where every hour of your time is money spent, devoting this amount of time to looking for government aid is a luxury as well. Therefore, they are prevented from receiving the little assistance available to them. Most of the time, they do not even qualify for welfare because of the low-wage paying job that they have, even though they desperately need the assistance. Therefore, who or what do we blame for the devastating conditions of the â€Å"working poor† in our society?If there was a clear cut answer to this question, then maybe this question would never need to be asked. We would just point a finger and work on getting the problem fixed. Society strips the â€Å"working poor† of their dignity, self-worth, self-respect and pride and leaves them naked to suffer these physically demanding, dead-end jobs where they are paid next to nothing and in the end, still condemned because they are thought of as lazy parasites that put a strain on society through their addictions and their insistence on reproducing in unfavorable circumstances.Society is quick to judge these individuals and disapprove of their actions when in reality it is society’s fault that these people must depend on such things as welfare in order to minimally survive. According to Furman and Parrot in â€Å"Raising the minimum wage will reduce poverty†, raising the minimum wage would be an important first step and a useful complement to public policies like the EITC, food stamps, and child care subsidies, which provide additional benefits and supports for low-income working families.They believe that a broader agenda is needed, however, to raise the prospects of low-wage workers and their families more significantly. Such an agenda would need to include additional income supports, help in obtaining the health care, child care, and housing that these families need but often cannot afford, and new opportunities to attend college or upgrade their skills so they can secure higher paying, more stable jobs. Works Cited â€Å"25 million depend on emergency food assistance. † Policy & Practice June 2006: 7.Academic OneFile. Web. 22 June 2012. Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Department of Labor. May 2012. Web. 21 June 2012. Christie, Les. â€Å"Number of people without health insurance climbs. † CNN Money. Cable News Network 2012. Web. 21 June 2012. Conlin, Michelle, and Aaron Bernstein. â€Å"The Working Poor Are Not Getting By in America. † Poverty. Ed. Viqi Wagner. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2007. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from â€Å"Working †¦ And Poor. † Business Week (31 May 2004). Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 0 June 2012. Dreier, Peter. Why America’s Workers Can’t Pay the Rent. Dissent 47 (3). Summer 2000. Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New Yor k: Henry Holt and Co, 2001. Print. Furman, Jason, and Sharon Parrot. â€Å"Raising the Minimum Wage Will Reduce Poverty. † Poverty. Ed. Viqi Wagner. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2007. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from â€Å"A $7. 25 Minimum Wage Would Be a Useful Step in Helping Working Families Escape Poverty. † www. cbpp. org. 2007. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context.Web. 22 June 2012. Jeff Chapman. â€Å"Employment and the Minimum Wage: Evidence from Recent State Labor Trends,† Economic Policy Institute, 2004. And in one of the most compelling studies, David Card and Alan B. Krueger find that the 1992 New Jersey state minimum wage increase had no negative effect on employment in New Jersey’s fast-food industry. David Card and Alan Krueger, â€Å"Minimum Wages and Employment: A case study of the fast-food industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania,† American Economic Review, vol. 4 (4), 772-793, 2004. Pimpare, Stephen. â€Å"Welfare Reform Has Increase d Poverty. † Poverty and Homelessness. Ed. Noel Merino. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Current Controversies. Rpt. from â€Å"Why Welfare Reform Has Failed. † ZNet. 2004. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 22 June 2012. RaisetheMinimumWage. com. National Employment Law Project. June 2012. Web. 21 June 21 2012. Rhoda Cohen, J. , Mabli, F. , Potter, Z. , Zhao. Hunger In America 2010. Feeding America. February 2010.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Business Aviation Operations (Is it luxury or a necessity) The WritePass Journal

Business Aviation Operations (Is it luxury or a necessity) Introduction Business Aviation Operations (Is it luxury or a necessity) a). General aviation thus consists of all flights that are not â€Å"conducted by the military or the scheduled airlines† (NBAA, 2012a) and is therefore considered to be an important aspect of most business operations. This is because, business aviation is said to â€Å"complement airline services in satisfying the nation’s business transportation requirements† (Wensveen, 2011: 133) which could not be achieved through scheduled transportation alone. Non-scheduled, also known as on-demand, transportation, therefore enables businesses to use air transportation as and when they need it, which is highly beneficial and helps to facilitate economic growth and world trade. It also â€Å"boosts productivity across the global economy† (Rochat, 2004: 9) and allows businesses to invest in different countries, which advances the economy overall. Whilst there are significant economic benefits of business aviation, however, it has been questioned whether it is a luxury or a necessity. This is largely due to the different types of people that use on-demand transportation since it is unclear whether the more expensive use of business aviation really is necessary (Sheehan, 2003: 1). Arguments that Business Aviation Operations is a Luxury It is undeniable that business aviation has become a way of life for many successful businesses. Because of this, it is very difficult not to associate this type of travel with being more of a luxury than a necessity since many would argue that business travel can be conducted in a more economical manner. This was certainly recognised by White and Bruton (2010: 330) when they viewed private jets as â€Å"unnecessary expenses† that could be avoided. The accuracy of this statement will undoubtedly be open to debate but, given the availability of business travel through scheduled transportation, the use of private jets may simply be a personal preference as opposed to a business need. Accordingly, it has often been pointed out that â€Å"business aviation is a costly luxury that has no place in the modern business environment† (Craig, 2012). This is because; costs need to be managed effectively if a business is to thrive, which is why a lot of businesses are actually consi dering videoconferencing as opposed to travelling: â€Å"42 percent of 610 business travellers and corporate travel managers responding to a 2008 poll by Business Traveller Magazine said they were exploring alternatives to business trips, including video or Web conferences† (Inc, 2012: 1). In light of this, it could be said that business travel is unnecessary and therefore a mere luxury given that the majority of business activity can be conducted through video or web conferencing. Regardless of this, business aviation does appear to be on the rise and it is unlikely that innovative technology will replace business travel anytime soon. This which is evident by the findings of the Confederation of British Industry in 2001 when it was made clear that; â€Å"Despite the promises of the 1990s that video-conferencing and e-working would reduce its need, business aviation travel grew by 22% between 1995 and 1998 and is predicted to double on the 1998 level by 2015† (Leathley, 2004: 36). Consequently, although business aviation can be replaced, there is a great reluctance to do so since businesses would prefer to travel and undertake meetings in a face to face setting. Whilst this may not be the most cost effective way of conducting business, it is unlikely to change a ny time soon and as noted by Beaverstock (2010, 227); â€Å"video conferencing has had no noticeable impact on business traffic.† Arguably, this signifies that whilst there are other avenues available for businesses, individuals still prefer to travel in style, which demonstrates that business aviation is widely considered a luxury advantage to conducting business (Patiky, 2012). Arguments that Business Aviation Operations is a Necessity Not all agree that business aviation operations are a luxury and instead it has been argued by the NBAA in relation to their ‘No Plane No Gain Campaign’ (NBAA, 2012b) that air-transportation is vital for any business. Hence, it is believed that shareholder value is greatly increased where business aviation is utilised since those companies that were found to have used business aviation during and before the recession were better protected from the effects of the recession than those companies that did not use business aviation (NEXA, 2012). This clearly illustrates how effective business aviation is and although this type of travel is seen as luxurious, the main objective of using on-demand transportation is to provide frequency and convenience to businesses. Hence, as clarified by Capell; â€Å"instead of Kobe steaks and champagne, what passengers really want is frequency and convenience† (Cappell and Reena, 2007: 46). Accordingly, whilst private jets have become a symbol of unnecessary expense, for the majority of businesses air transportation is crucial to their business. Moreover, it has even been argued by some businesses that whilst their private jets are in fact comfortable they are not luxurious which brings the prior arguments into disrepute (CBS, 2009). Thus, because of the advantages business aviation brings to a business, it seems necessary for their continued use. In addition, whilst the use of some private jets for business purposes may be less luxurious than others, this should not indicate that they are unnecessary. This is because, as has been put forward by McClellan (1991: 51); â€Å"business airplanes are useful, productive and make certain trips possible that could not be accomplished by any other means.† He went on to question whether they are also a luxury and concluded that although they are a luxury, there is nothing wrong with that. This is because, he added; â€Å"the fall of socialism proves that we need to strive for things beyond the bare-bone necessities. We do not need to apologise for the luxury of airplanes or their exclusivity.† Essentially, whilst business aviation is deemed to be a necessity, this does not mean that it is not also a luxury, yet businesses should not be prevented from using it merely because of this fact alone. This is because; economic growth and innovation is created from effective busine ss production and if businesses can function more effectively through the use of air-transportation then this should be promoted rather than stifled. Flexibility is one of the main needs of a business and if business aviation provides such flexibility then the use of on-demand transportation is to be welcomed. Arguments that Business Aviation Operations is both a Luxury and a Necessity Conversely, it has been argued that although flexibility is an important aspect of any business, it is unnecessary for businesses to have private jets. This is because the majority of airlines in today’s society are able to offer a similar level of flexibility that one would acquire from a private jet: â€Å"Given the flexibility of and high level of service offered by many traditional airlines, the question remains as to why so many business traveller are using private aircraft† (Beaverstock, 2010: 90). This is particularly true in relation to the more price-sensitive small and medium sized enterprises since the costs of travelling privately will be disproportionate to the outcomes that are achieved. Consequently, whilst business travellers do require the flexibility and convenience of business aviation, they also prefer to travel in style and comfort.   Therefore, are therefore are elements of luxury and necessity in business aviation operations and in deciding whet her this type of travel is simply an unnecessary expense will be dependent upon the individual business. This is because, all businesses have different needs and requirements, and whilst one business may require that extra bit of flexibility, which would be considered proportionate in light of the costs, another business may be travelling by private jet simply because they want to indulge in the luxury surroundings. Regardless of whether businesses make use of scheduled or unscheduled air transportation, it is evident that many business operations do need to be undertaken face to face. And, in today’s globalised economy business aviation has never been more important. Nonetheless, it is questionable whether business aviation is easily accessible for smaller companies and unless an efficient global management system can be produced, businesses will not be advanced. As put by Greer (2011): â€Å"In today’s economy, where the fast growth of emerging markets outpaces America and the developed world, if you haven’t gone global yet, it’s time to get moving.† However, it was also stated that; â€Å"going global is easier said than done - especially for smaller companies. One of the biggest challenges they face is how to manage a diverse group of people across a broad geographic scope† (Greer: 2011). Arguably, it is palpable that in order for a business to grow , globalisation of that business is a necessity. Nevertheless, unless business aviation can be integrated into business operations, it is unlikely that an effective global management system will be established. This clearly illustrates the importance of business aviation and although it may be considered a luxury by many, it is undoubtedly a necessity. Conclusion Overall, whilst business aviation is considered to be the use of any â€Å"general aviation† aircraft for a business purpose, it seems as though personal advantages are also being acquired from its use. This is simply due to the luxury surroundings that private aircrafts have and although business aviation is necessary for the economy and globalisation, businesses do prefer to travel in style, which can be considered another reason why many businesses choose non-scheduled transportation over scheduled transportation. Whilst many would argue that this is simply an unnecessary business expense, because of the fact that business activity can be conducted through other means such as video or web conferencing, it seems as though the flexibility and convenience that business aviation provides outweighs the cost implications. This will, nevertheless, be dependent upon the type of business that is utilising this type of travel because whilst it may be deemed suitable for large compani es, it may not be for small and medium sized businesses. Still, because, shareholder value is greatly increased where business aviation is used, it seems vital that the majority of businesses carry on using this type of transportation. This is especially so significantimportant in light of the effects business aviation had on businesses during the recession and although this type of travel is seen as luxurious, the main objective of using on-demand transportation is to provide frequency and convenience to businesses. As such, it seems as though business aviation is both a luxury and a necessity, yet it provides real benefits to businesses within a globalised economy. Thus, if businesses wish to advance and grow within the economy the use of aviation ought to be maintained. References Beaverstock, J. V. (2010). International Business Travel in the Global Economy, Ashgate Publishing. Capell, K. and Reena, J. (2007). Business Class at Bargain Prices. Business Week, Issue 4020. CBS. (2009). Corporate Jets: Luxury or Necessity? CBS Evening News, [Online], Available: [01 December 2012]. Craig, S. (2012). Private Business Aviation Isn’t Just About Luxury, Globial Talks Business, [Online], Available: [01 December 2012]. Greer, S. (2011). Why Face to Face Meetings Make all the Difference. [Online], Available: [01 December 2012]. Inc. (2012). How to Manage Travel Expenses. [Online], Available: [01 December 2012]. Leathley, B. (2004). Websites; Using the Web to Study the Health Effects of Flying, Tolleys Health and Safety at Work, The Journal of the Working Environment, Issue 9. McClellan, J. M. (1991). Uncle Sam Can’t Tax Luxury, Flying Magazine, Volume 118, Number 9. NBAA. (2012a). What is Business Aviation? National Business Aviation Association, [Online], Available: [01 December 2012]. NBAA. (2012b). Business Aviation: Jobs, Productivity and Keeping America Connected, [Online] Available: [01 December, 2012]. NEXA. (2012). Business Aviation; Maintaining Shareholder Value Through Turbulent Times, NBAA, [Online], Available: [01 December 2012]. Patiky, M. (2012). The Enlightened Business Traveller, Business Aviation, [Online], Available: [01 December, 2012]. Rochat, P. (2004). The Economic Social Benefits of Air Transport, [Online], Available: [01 December 2012]. Sheehan, J. J. (2003). Business and Corporate Aviation Management: On Demand Air Travel, McGraw-Hill Professional. Wensveen, J. G. (2011). Air Transportation: A Management Perspective, 7th Edition, Ashgate Publishing. White, M. A. and Bruton, G, D. (2010). The Management of Technology and Innovation: A Strategic Approach, 2nd Edition, Cengage Learning; Business Economics.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Short Love Quotes from Movies

Short Love Quotes from Movies Look into your lovers eyes. Whisper one of these famous movie love quotes. Cupid has to strike! These famous movie love quotes are a favorite with many couples. If you are looking for the most seductive love quote, you will find it here. Love quotes of this intensity are hard to find. Casablanca Kiss me. Kiss me as if it were the last time. City of Angels I would rather have had one breath of her hair, one kiss from her mouth, one touch of her hand, than eternity without it. One. Crimes and Misdemeanors My husband and I fell in love at first sight... maybe I should have taken a second look. Fried Green Tomatoes A heart can be broken, but it keeps beating just the same. Four Weddings and a Funeral I always just hoped that, that Id meet some nice friendly girl, like the look of her, hope the look of me didnt make her physically sick, then pop the question and... um... settle down and be happy. It worked for my parents. Well, apart from the divorce and all that! Love and Death To love is to suffer. To avoid suffering, one must not love; but then one suffers from not loving. Therefore, to love is to suffer, not to love is to suffer, to suffer is to suffer. To be happy is to love; to be happy then is to suffer, but suffering makes one unhappy; therefore to be unhappy one must love or love to suffer or suffer from too much happiness. I hope youre getting this down. When Harry Met Sally I love that you get cold when it is 71 degrees out. I love that it takes you an hour and a half to order a sandwich. I love that you get a little crinkle in your nose when youre looking at me like Im nuts. I love that after I spend day with you, I can still smell your perfume on my clothes. And I love that you are the last person I want to talk to before I go to sleep at night. And its not because Im lonely, and its not because its New Years Eve. I came here tonight because when you realize you want to spend the rest of your life with somebody, you want the rest of your life to start as soon as possible. You cant express every feeling that you have every moment that you have them. Wizard of Oz Hearts will never be practical until they are made unbreakable... Without a heart, I can never really know what it would be like to love someone, or ever really understand trashy novels.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Ostrich Facts

Ostrich Facts The sole member of its order of birds, the ostrich (Struthio camelus) is the tallest and heaviest living bird. Though flightless, ostriches, which are native to Africa, can sprint at speeds of up to 45 mph and jog for extended distances at a sustained pace of 30 mph. Ostriches  have the largest eyes of any living terrestrial vertebrate, and their  3-pound eggs  are the largest produced by any living bird. In addition to all this, the male ostrich is one of the few birds on Earth to possess a functioning penis. Fast Facts: The Ostrich Scientific Name: Struthio camelusCommon Names: The common ostrichBasic Animal Group: BirdSize: 5 feet 7  inches tall to 6 feet 7 inches tallWeight: 200–300 poundsLifespan: 40–50 yearsDiet: OmnivoreHabitat: Africa, including deserts, semi-arid plains, savannas, and open woodlandsPopulation: UnknownConservation Status:  Vulnerable Description Ostriches  are the largest birds alive today, with adults weighing between 200 to 300 pounds. Adult males attain a height of up to 6 feet 7 inches tall; females are slightly smaller. Their immense body size and small wings make them incapable of flying. Ostriches have a remarkable tolerance to heat, withstanding temperatures up to 132 degrees Fahrenheit without much stress. Ostriches have been domesticated for only about 150 years, and are truly only partly domesticated, or, rather, are only domesticated for a short period of their lives. Ostriches belong to a clan (but not order) of flightless birds known as the ratites. Ratites have smooth breastbones lacking keels, the bone structures to which flight muscles would normally be attached. Other birds classified as ratites include cassowaries, kiwis, moas, and emus. Habitat and Range Ostriches live in Africa and thrive in a wide variety of habitats, including deserts, semi-arid plains, savannas, and open woodlands. During their five-month breeding season, these flightless  birds form flocks of five to 50 individuals, often intermingling with grazing mammals such as zebras and antelopes. When breeding season is over, this larger flock breaks down into small groups of two to five birds that care for the newborn hatchlings. Diet and Behavior Ostriches are omnivores, and thus eat mostly plant material, though at times they may also feed on insects and small vertebrates. Although they prefer plants- particularly roots, seeds, and leaves- they also eat locusts, lizards, snakes, and rodents. They have even been known to eat sand and pebbles, which helps them grind up their food inside their gizzard, a small pouch where food is crushed and ripped up before it reaches the stomach.   Ostriches dont need to drink water; they get all the water they need from the plants they eat. However, they will drink if they come across a watering hole. Reproduction and Offspring Male ostriches are called cocks or roosters, and females are called hens. A group of ostriches is called a flock. Flocks can consist of up to 100 birds, though most have 10 members, according to the San Diego Zoo. The group has a dominant male and a dominant female and several other females. Lone males come and go during mating season. Ostriches lay 3-pound eggs, which measure some 6 inches in length and 5 inches in diameter, making them the title of largest egg produced by any living bird. Males and females sit on the eggs until they hatch, between 42 and 46 days.  Male and female ostriches share the responsibility of raising their young. Ostrich offspring are larger than any other bird baby. At birth, chicks can be as big as chickens. rontav/Getty Images Conservation Status According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, ostriches are considered to be vulnerable and their population is declining, though their population is unknown. The Somali ostrich, in particular, is thought to be in rapid decline. The San Diego Zoo notes that although not threatened, the ostrich requires strict protection and farming to conserve the remaining wild populations. Sources Bradford, Alina. â€Å"Ostrich Facts: The Worlds Largest Bird.†Ã‚  LiveScience, Purch, 17 Sept. 2014.â€Å"Ostrich.†Ã‚  San Diego Zoo Global Animals and Plants.â€Å"Frequently Asked Questions.†Ã‚  Frequently Asked Questions - American Ostrich Association.â€Å"The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.†Ã‚  IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

International human resource management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

International human resource management - Essay Example This paper intends to analyze the key factors that are in existence in both the home and host country, which influence the transfer of HR best practices across multinationals global operation. Additionally, the paper will seek to establish if the process of diffusion vary across different HR practices The pressures of internal and external consistencies shape international human resource management practices. Almond and Gonzalez (2014) stated that isomorphism is one of the major factors that influence the transfer of HR best practices across multinational global operation. They defined isomorphism as the process whereby one unit in a certain population is forced to resemble other units elsewhere that face the same sets of environmental contexts. Some HR practices in the local countries have to comply with the laws and regulations of the local laws and are therefore forced to adhere to the practices through coercive isomorphism. Blazejewski (2006) on his part stated that mimetic processes influence the transfer of HR best practices and he described mimetic isomorphism as the process whereby the individuals in the organization imitate various roles through internal processes such as managerial fashion or external processes such as education and consulting. Normative isomorphism is one of the factors of the host county effects that influence HR practices, where the business has to adopt the organizational forms because the professionals in the business claim to be superior Dorrenbacher and Geppert (2006) stated that cross- national isomorphism is one of the key home factors that influence the transfer of HR best practices across multinational global operation. In cross-national isomorphism, the MNCs have to follow the rules, regulations, and structures of the home country where the firm they are dealing with originates. Edwards et al (2007) stated that there are plant level trade

Friday, October 18, 2019

Neuroimaging of the Acute Stroke Patient Case Study

Neuroimaging of the Acute Stroke Patient - Case Study Example This research tells that Alice is a 72-year-old woman who lives with her husband in an apartment. At 11:30 pm on a Thursday night, her husband called the ambulance because his wife was exhibiting some unusual symptoms. The first symptom was that his wife was sitting in front of the gas oven, continuously turning it on and off and saying that she needed to be there in order to keep warm. It was a humid night, so Alice’s husband was surprised that she appeared to feel cold. The second symptom was that Alice did not appear to recognize her husband, and kept mumbling to the oven rather than engaging in conversation with her husband. When the ambulance arrived, it was observed that Alice was pale and still dressed in her nightgown. Although she tried to get to her feet, she was unable to pull herself up. As such, being pale was a third symptom, while lacking motor control was a fourth. Alice’s medical history was mostly straightforward and there was little indication of any major aspects that would have an influence on the symptoms that she was showing. Alice is retired but remains active in the community by being involved in volunteer groups and acting as a teacher for children within the area. She has not had any significant health complications, aside from breaking her leg several years ago in a car accident. She has no history of falls and her husband considers her to be in good health. She is not currently on any medication.

Remix cultutre, analysis Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Remix cultutre, analysis - Research Paper Example se alarms to gain support for staying the course in Iraq.   The speech this morning was designed to once again lure Americans into the insidious and sinister Bushco Terror Trap.† ( TV newslies, 2005) Similarly, Anakin is given the task to protect the Republic from the invaders while at the same time gallantly establishing his love relationship with Queen Padme. In case of Bush and Rice, theirs is an intimate political relationship nurtured by the concept of war. Beautiful Natalie Portman plays Padme, a princess whose vote is crucial to the Republic. She has an enigmatic character and can potentially disrupt status quo given her powers. For this reason, she is compared to Condoleeza rice, the National Security Advisor of Bush, who has past powers since she is a brilliant and well-educated diplomat who developed the policy of â€Å" Transformational Diplomacy† as prescription to the problems of the Middle East ( U.S. Dept. of State, 2005). Rice was aggressive in maintaining diplomacy with countries besieged by conflict which is similar to the stance of Princess Padme. The poster also shows the clones as the main antagonist, when in fact it is really Anakin who harbors the real enemy within- Darth Vader. Ironically, Sadam Hussein is portrayed as the clone since all Iraqis and people of Middle East are clones of terrorists which is why there are subject to much scrutiny and suspicion. Such was the moral panic that disseminated during post 9/11. The original Star Wars poster did not state the Phantom Menace but the MAD poster introduced Osama Bin Laden as the Phantom Menace. The main reason for such is that Anakin would later become Darth Vader who becomes the real phantom menace. The face of Obi-Wan Kenobi, the swashbuckling mentor of Anakin is replaced with face of Donald Rumsfield. Rumsfield, is a seasoned politician and retired military strategist who have served Nixon, Ford, and even the old Bush. He is like Obi since his experience makes him a very

President Bush's Crime Control Agenda Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

President Bush's Crime Control Agenda - Essay Example In the Des Moines IA GOP Debate in 1999, George Bush states his position on gun control: "I'm in favor of keeping guns out of the hands of people who shouldn't have them like felons & juveniles. I'm for enforcing the laws on the books.... We need to send a signal to people, don't be illegally selling guns and don't be illegally using guns. The best accountability for somebody who breaks the law with a gun is called jail, certain jail" (Who is George Bush 2007). In this statement it becomes notable that even though the president supports gun ownership, he sets specific rules and restrictions on how firearms should be handled. The gun control of Bush allows gun to be primarily used solely for hunting and self-protection. Believing in the right of a citizen and his family to be protected against threats of crimes, he stresses that "law-abiding citizens ought to be able to own a gun" (St. Louis Debate 2000) yet "we ought to get guns out of the hands of people who shouldn't have them" (St. Louis Debate 2000). Rigorous background checks are put in place in order to ascertain whether a person is allowed to own a gun. However, if gun laws are broken, people are held accountable for the consequences.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Contemporary Issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Contemporary Issues - Essay Example It is, therefore, the engineers’ prerogative to offer this protection. The education bar needs to be raised to ensure all those who qualify are up to the task of offering their services to the world (Osif, 2006). This paper will review some of the contemporary issues they face, and their possible solutions. There are many issues that face the civil engineering fraternity. One of the issues they face today is the lack of investment. The fraternity faces a particularly immense problem with lack of investment that they cannot conduct business as usual. Every engineer is aware of the dangers and consequences of poor structures. They have to face the burden of proving their innocence when it comes to disasters concerning their structures. It is a risky investment, thus; not many individuals are willing to invest in this field (Hansen & Zenobia, 2011). Organizations prefer to play it safe. The need to invest in a risky business is usually not appealing to anyone. Even in the past, the need to have structures built in order to connect people and the world was downplayed by lack of capital (Hansen & Zenobia, 2011). It played a frighteningly crucial role in preventing the creation of exceptional structures for a long time. When infrastructure over the years does not get the recognition, they tend to have a negative impact on society. This presents a problem to everyone in today’s modern society. Society evolves on a daily basis. Many individuals do not want their society to be depleted of all its natural beauty. Civil engineers need to realise this and strive to be â€Å"sustainers†, not just builders or designers. This is another problem or challenge they face. They need to shape society to accept the new, innovative way in which the world is changing (Hansen & Zenobia, 2011). The world should be ready and willing to invest in some of the civil engineering projects. This can prevent some of the problems that face the fraternity. Capital is

Social Security Program Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Social Security Program - Essay Example Both the States and the Federal Government had started to distinguish that certain dangers in an inexorably industrialized economy could best be met through a social protection methodology to open welfare. That is, the contributory financing of social protection projects might guarantee that security was accessible as a matter of great with an open assistance approach whereby just those persons in need might be qualified for profits. In the United States, as in most streamlined nations, social protection first started with specialists remuneration (Mathews, 2014). A Federal law coating non military person workers of the Government in risky employments was received in 1908, and the first State recompense law to be held sacred was ordered in 1911. By 1929, specialists compensation laws were basically in everything except four States. These laws made industry answerable for the expenses of remunerating specialists. Advancement of U.S. programs has been logical and incremental, formulate d because of particular issues, and portrayed by an incredible level of decentralization (Livingston, 2008). The Office of the Chief Actuary (OCACT) arranges and coordinates a system of actuarial gauges and examines relating to the SSA-managed retirement, survivors and handicap protection programs and supplemental security pay program and to anticipated changes in these projects. Evaluates operations of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund; gauges future operations of the trust stores; behaviors investigations of project financing; performs actuarial and demographic research on social protection and related system issues; and appraisals future workloads. Provides specialized and consultative administrations to the Commissioner, the Board of Trustees of those two Trust

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Contemporary Issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Contemporary Issues - Essay Example It is, therefore, the engineers’ prerogative to offer this protection. The education bar needs to be raised to ensure all those who qualify are up to the task of offering their services to the world (Osif, 2006). This paper will review some of the contemporary issues they face, and their possible solutions. There are many issues that face the civil engineering fraternity. One of the issues they face today is the lack of investment. The fraternity faces a particularly immense problem with lack of investment that they cannot conduct business as usual. Every engineer is aware of the dangers and consequences of poor structures. They have to face the burden of proving their innocence when it comes to disasters concerning their structures. It is a risky investment, thus; not many individuals are willing to invest in this field (Hansen & Zenobia, 2011). Organizations prefer to play it safe. The need to invest in a risky business is usually not appealing to anyone. Even in the past, the need to have structures built in order to connect people and the world was downplayed by lack of capital (Hansen & Zenobia, 2011). It played a frighteningly crucial role in preventing the creation of exceptional structures for a long time. When infrastructure over the years does not get the recognition, they tend to have a negative impact on society. This presents a problem to everyone in today’s modern society. Society evolves on a daily basis. Many individuals do not want their society to be depleted of all its natural beauty. Civil engineers need to realise this and strive to be â€Å"sustainers†, not just builders or designers. This is another problem or challenge they face. They need to shape society to accept the new, innovative way in which the world is changing (Hansen & Zenobia, 2011). The world should be ready and willing to invest in some of the civil engineering projects. This can prevent some of the problems that face the fraternity. Capital is

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

707 week 6 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

707 week 6 - Assignment Example It is however relatively expensive, has limited scope, and may be susceptible to environmental factors. Interviews involves oral presentation of prompts to which a research participant respond and could be face to face or involve the use of technologies such as phones or computer and internet applications for oral and visual communication over long distances. Unlike in observation, interviews involve the research participants and therefore induce threats of participant bias though it offers more in-depth information. Questionnaires, however, have written prompts and establish a distinction between a researcher and research participants. It is less expensive, convenient, and flexible, and the use of technology, such as in online enhances these advantages (Kothari, 2004). A research aims at developing knowledge, from existing data, for solving a problem or bridging information gap and reliability and validity ensures realization of the aims. Reliability defines consistency in data and ensures that results and implications are consistent with identified problem while validity ensures accuracy in knowledge development for addressing a research problem (Heavey, 2014). It is necessary to code collected data before analysis because coding aligns data with analysis objectives and selected analysis technique (Lester, 2013). Gender is one of the identified variables and 1 will represent male while 2 will represent

Monday, October 14, 2019

Motivational Impairment in Schizophrenia

Motivational Impairment in Schizophrenia ANTICIPATING PLEASURE AND EFFORT IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 1 Do People With Schizophrenia Have Difficulty Anticipating Pleasure, Engaging in Effortful Behavior, or Both? David E. Gard, Amy H. Sanchez, Kathryn Cooper, Melissa Fisher, Coleman Garrett, and Sophia Vinogradov Citation Gard, D. E., Sanchez, A. H., Cooper, K., Fisher, M., Garrett, C., Vinogradov, S. (2014, August 18). Do People With Schizophrenia Have Difficulty Anticipating Pleasure, Engaging in Effortful Behavior, or Both?. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Advance online publication. Introduction The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of â€Å"motivational impairment† on the goal directed behavior of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. This was accomplished by measuring the levels of pleasure (reward) and effortfulness in the activities and future goals of the subjects. These two factors were selected to be measured due to the fact that they are two of the component processes of motivation which has been proven by previous research to be affected by schizophrenia. Research has found inconsistencies in the assessment of pleasure and reward in schizophrenia patients. For instance, while Anhedonia has been frequently reported to be associated with schizophrenia (Herbener Harrow, 2002; see Gard et al., 2014), patients do not report a decrease in pleasure or positive stimuli (Cohen Minor, 2010; see Gard et al., 2014). These inconsistencies have been explained to be the result of clear-cut distinctions between the different temporal components associated with specific types of reward and pleasure. Schultz (2002) and Wise (2002) (as cited in Gard et al., 2014) have shown that there is a physiological difference in how anticipatory pleasure and consummatory (in-the moment) pleasure are processed in the brain. While consummatory pleasure involves serotonergic and opioid systems, anticipatory pleasure involves dopaminergic and mesolimbic projections (Schultz, 2002; Wise, 2002; see Gard et al., 2014). In another study conducted using an Ecological Mome ntary Assessment (EMA), participants with schizophrenia showed similar levels of consummatory pleasure, but depleted levels of anticipatory pleasure (Gard et al., 2007; see Gard et al., 2014). Consequently, pleasure was selected to be a dependent variable (DV) in this study. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have reported difficulty in anticipating rewards (Buck Lysar, 2013; Gard et al., 2007; see Gard et al., 2014) as well as in processing rewards (Strauss, Waltz Gold 2008; see Gard et al., 2014). The link between reward and motivation has been established through the study conducted by Juckel et al. (2006) (as cited in Gard et al., 2014) which showed decreased ventral striatal activation during reward processing from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia; decreased ventral striatal activation has been associated with anhedonia (Juckel et al., 2006; see Gard et al., 2014). This also relates reward to anticipatory pleasure. Research has indicated that patients with high negative symptoms of schizophrenia have difficulty assessing the effort required to accomplish a task which would provide a high reward (Gold et al., 2013; see Gard et al., 2014). Furthermore, in addition to difficulties assessing the effort involved, patients also appeared to have difficulty putting in the effort required to do a particular task. In relation to reward, Fervaha, Graff-Guerrero, et al. (2013) (as cited in Gard et al., 2014) showed that patients of schizophrenia only had problems when it came to the assessment of the effort involved to achieve a reward, and not when ascertaining the value of a reward. (Fervaha, Graff-Guerrero, et al. 2013; see Gard et al., 2014) In light of the aforementioned findings in past literature, the researchers came up with three assumptions, and the resulting research questions reflected them. The assumptions were that individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia would have: A deficit in anticipatory pleasure Difficulty in anticipating and processing rewards Difficulty assessing and expending the necessary effort required to accomplish a task Using these assumptions, the researchers of the present study came up with 5 research questions. The following has been taken from Gard et al. (2014) Compared with a socio-demographically matched group of healthy participants, do participants with schizophrenia demonstrate fewer daily activities and goals, decreased anticipatory pleasure for their upcoming goals, decreased pleasure-based goals, but intact in-the-moment pleasure? (Hypothesis) Do participants with schizophrenia pursue goals and activities that are less effortful than healthy comparison participants, and do they have difficulty assessing the effort of an upcoming goal? (Hypothesis) Do people with schizophrenia have difficulty completing their goals, and is this related to anticipation or experience of pleasure, or to how effortful the goal is? (Hypothesis) In people with schizophrenia, what is the relationship of anticipatory pleasure and effort exertion or assessment to: cognitive dysfunction, symptoms, and functioning? (Alternative Hypothesis) To what degree could group differences found in Questions 1– 4 be explained by any other non-diagnostic group differences? (Alternative Hypothesis) Participants The selection of participants differed between the experimental and control group. The subjects for the control group were selected through postings on the Internet and the distribution of flyers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Initially, forty-three individuals agreed to participate and signed the informed consent forms. However two of them dropped out; one, finding the study to be too much of a burden, dropped out on the first day, and the other failed to respond to even a third of the phone calls. The subjects for the experimental group were selected from outpatient clinics and day treatment centers in the Bay Area. Fifty patients of schizophrenia initially signed the informed consent forms but three decided to drop out; two dropped out even before the experiment started citing that it was too intrusive, and the other dropped out after two calls on the first day. All in all, the results of the study were formulated based on the results from forty-one subjects without schizophrenia and forty-seven subjects with either schizophrenia (n=31) and schizoaffective disorder (n=16). Diagnoses for the conditions were confirmed for all participants using the DSM-IV-TR. Strict exclusion criteria for the whole sample, and especially for the patient group, were established and implemented. Individuals who had had traumatic head injuries which leads to bouts of unconsciousness, had substance abuse problems in the last six months, mental disorders, or illiterate in English were all excluded. Patients who had been hospitalized in the last three months or had had their medication or dosage changed in the last month were also excluded from the study. Both groups were predominantly white males and had relatively no demographic differences between groups except for the symptoms for the disorder and employment rates. Only 17 percent of the individuals in the patient groups were employed full time or part time (4% and 13% respectively), compared to the 68 percent of full time and part time employees (24% and 44% respectively) in the control group. The experimenters did account for this discrepancy during the results phase. Method Four different types of assessments were used during this study, although the EMA remained the primary form of assessment of pleasure and effort. The Ecological Momentary Assessment is generally used in situations where specific activities and goals of the participants in a study need to be explicated. This study utilized a modified version of the EMA where cell phone calls were used instead of the traditional self-report forms, which were filled at particular intervals of time; cell phones were provided to every participant irrespective of who does or doesn’t own a cell phone. Trained research assistants called each participant four times every day, between 0900hrs and 2100hrs, for seven days to conduct a â€Å"semi-structured† interview. A majority of the questions were open ended and participants were encouraged to give detailed descriptions of their daily activities and goals. Some questions asked them how much pleasure/effort was associated with a particular task; their responses were rated on a Likert Scale (0 = not at all; 5 = extremely). The answers were categorized based on the research questions. Four independent raters then scored the pleasurability, effortfulness, difficulty, and etc†¦ of all the goals and activities reported by the participants on a 0-3 Likert Scale. A subset of participants with no demographic differences from the original sample was also tested to determine the difficulty of the tasks they attempted; also measured on a 0-5 Likert Scale. After the completion of the week of EMA, two independent research assistants travelled to the homes of the participants in order to determine the levels of stimulation and reward provided by the environment. Several subjects from the patient and control group (seven and nine respectively) decided to opt out from this stage of assessment citing different reasons. The levels of stimulation and reward were measured in terms of three elements; aesthetics of the home, availability of media, and social stimulation. These were measured using a combination of a modified version of the Environmental Assessment Scale (EASy) and the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME). Scores from each of the three elements as well as individual scores were averaged; the results had high inter-rater reliability. Two additional assessments were conducted on the patient group; they were tested for neurocognition, and were also clinically rated for functioning. During the former, 40 subjects with no demographic differences completed a Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (METRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery. An overall average of their results was used for all the future analyses. During the latter, a Quality of Life Scale (QLS) was used to assess overall functioning of patients with respect to elements such as â€Å"social initiative† and â€Å"capacity for empathy†; â€Å"motivation† and â€Å"anhedonia† were not measured since they were already been used as DVs for the EMA. Procedure Rigorous pilot testing was carried before the actual experiment was conducted. Factors such as whether participants understand what the terms â€Å"activity† and â€Å"goals† meant in the context of the present study were determined during the piloting phase. After participants were selected, orientations on how to properly respond to an EMA during laboratory testing were conducted; they were subsequently required to provide written informed consent before going any further. Most of the basic questions that research assistants asked during the study were previously determined with respect to their effectiveness. Before they were provided a larger sample of the study to be rated, the coders were extensively trained for their task using a smaller subset of the original sample. When the results from the EMA were presented to the four independent raters, the responses from the experimental and control group were presented together in a randomized fashion. Attributes that were to be rated by the coders (such as pleasurable activities and effortful activities) were clearly defined within parameters. As previously mentioned, cell phones were provided to each participant to be used purely for the purposes of the study, and to be returned after its conclusion. The EMA and subsequent home assessments were recorded on audio for post hoc quality assessment. Monetary compensations were provided to every participant upon the completion of the whole study (marked by the returning of the cell phones) and for the completion of the several different assessments conducted during it; the amounts were different for each assessment. Data Analysis The independent variables (IVs) for all stages of assessment were individuals with schizophrenia and individuals without schizophrenia. The dependent variables (DVs), however, weren’t as consistent throughout the experiments, except for pleasure and effort. A number of other variables such as reward, difficulty, and sociability were also measured during the different stages of the study. The basic design of every experiment conducted in the study was to determine how the experimental group was different from the control group with respect to the numerous DVs they were being tested on. Two types of analyses were used to determine the statistical significance of the results obtained. The theoretical principles of these analyses are too convoluted to be properly explained, but for all intents and purposes, they seem to have been implemented correctly. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used in EMA analyses. Its effectiveness comes from the fact that it can categorize data into separate levels so that analysis of data from one level wouldn’t influence others. The EMA data were separated into Level one data (the multiple observations of participants) and level two data (between group differences in terms of neurocognition and functioning). For each research question and assessment, separate analyses of variation (ANOVA) were computed and their significance determined. Significance levels obtained through the HLM were presented as â€Å"pseudo-r2†. Independent sample t tests were conducted on the results obtained during the home assessments. It was used to determine whether or not the average level of stimulation that was computed for the control and experimental group was significant, with respect to each of the three aforementioned elements they were being measured on. Furthermore, the significance for the results of all five of the research questions seems to involve computation of t tests. The p values for them varied from 0.5, 0.1, and 0.001. Limitations and Future Research Dr. Marvin Monroe, Department of Psychology, Springfield University Sir, As requested, I have reviewed the study about pleasure and effort in schizophrenia, and it has got a number of interesting findings. Analysis of the results revealed that subjects with schizophrenia indeed set less effortful goals and engaged in less effortful activities. They also found that patients had difficulty determining with accuracy how difficult or effortful a task was going to be (in terms of resultant rewards). However, unlike the two aforementioned findings which were within the researchers’ expected results, the final finding was not; it showed that patients with schizophrenia engaged in more pleasurable activities, and that they set goals that were, and also anticipated by them, to be more pleasurable. I also analyzed the study for potential limitations and further research areas. In terms of limitations, it had many. Employment differences between the two sample groups felt like a deal breaker; however, the researchers did not find any significant difference when they computed the study for employment differences. The researchers themselves pointed out many, if not most, of the limitations that I found in this study. They highlighted four of them in the discussions and gave possible reasons for their occurrence. The foremost limitation according to the researchers was the reason behind the unexpected result which disproved their hypothesis. According to them, the social interactions with the research assistants might have induced pleasurable feelings within some participants. Other limitations include them focusing solely on short-term goals, the relatively new use of home assessment as a tool for measuring motivation in schizophrenia patients (which they also pointed out as a fut ure research area), and the fact that some assessments used fewer number of participants than the actual sample group. The researchers reported that there are no data available on â€Å"the relationship between effort assessment and functioning† and the â€Å"assessment of effort in daily life in Schizophrenia†. Another key area of research could be why social interactions increased anticipatory pleasure in patients with schizophrenia. This study illustrates several different ways in which schizophrenia patients could increase their motivation about everyday activities and goals. It was a very fascinating read. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to review such a study. Sincerely, Ibrahim Fatheen Abdul Sameeu